Ginseng Article

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Ginseng
Insam (ginseng).jpg
A root of cultivated Korean ginseng (P. ginseng)
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
  1. 人蔘
  2. 野山參
  3. 水參
  4. 白參
  5. 紅參
Simplified Chinese
  1. 人参
  2. 野山参
  3. 水參
  4. 白蔘
  5. 红蔘
Literal meaning
  1. human root (ginseng)
  2. wild mountain root (wild ginseng)
  3. water root (fresh ginseng)
  4. white root (dried ginseng)
  5. red root (dried steamed ginseng)
Cantonese name
Chinese
  1. 人參
  2. 野生人參
Literal meaning
  1. human root (ginseng)
  2. wild human root (wild ginseng)
Hokkien name
Chinese
  1. 人參
Korean name
Hangul
  1. 인삼
  2. 산삼
  3. 장뇌삼
  4. 수삼
  5. 백삼
  6. 홍삼
  7. 태극삼
Hanja
  1. 人蔘
  2. 山蔘
  3. 長腦蔘
  4. 水蔘
  5. 白蔘
  6. 紅蔘
  7. 太極蔘
Literal meaning
  1. human root (ginseng)
  2. mountain root (wild ginseng)
  3. long brain root (wild cultivated ginseng)
  4. water root (fresh ginseng)
  5. white root (dried ginseng)
  6. red root (dried steamed ginseng)
  7. taegeuk root (dried blanched ginseng)

Ginseng ( /ˈɪnsɛŋ/ [1]) is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.

Although ginseng has been used in traditional medicine over centuries, [2] modern clinical research is inconclusive about its biological effects. [3]

Etymology

The English word "ginseng" comes from the Hokkien Chinese jîn-sim (人蔘). The first character means "person" and the second character means "plant root"; [4] this refers to the root's characteristic forked shape, which resembles the legs of a person. [5]

The botanical genus name Panax, meaning "all-healing" in Greek, shares the same origin as " panacea" and was applied to this genus because Carl Linnaeus was aware of its wide use in Chinese medicine as a muscle relaxant.

History

One of the first written texts covering the use of ginseng as a medicinal herb was the Shen-Nung Pharmacopoeia, written in China in 196 AD. In his Compendium of Materia Medica herbal of 1596, Li Shizhen described ginseng as a "superior tonic". However, the herb was not used as a "cure-all" medicine, but more specifically as a tonic for patients with chronic illnesses and those who were convalescing. [6]

Control over ginseng fields in China and Korea became an issue in the 16th century. [7]

Ginseng species

Ginseng plants belong only to the genus Panax. [8] Cultivated species include Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius). [9] Ginseng is found in cooler climates—Korean ginseng (P. ginseng) native to Korean Peninsula, Northeast China, and Russian Far East, and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius) native to Canada and the United States—although some species grow in warm regions—South China ginseng (P. notoginseng) native to Southwest China and Vietnam. Vietnamese ginseng (P. vietnamensis) is the southernmost ginseng known.

Wild and cultivated ginseng

Wild ginseng

Wild ginseng ( Hangul산삼; Hanja山蔘; RRsansam; lit. mountain ginseng) grows naturally in mountains and is hand-picked by wild ginseng gatherers known as simmani (심마니). [10] Wild ginseng grows naturally and is harvested from wherever it is found. It is relatively rare and even increasingly endangered due to high demand for the product in recent years, leading to the harvest of wild plants faster than the growth which can take years to reach maturity. Wild ginseng can be processed to be red or white ginseng.

Cultivated ginseng

Cultivated ginseng ( Hangul인삼; Hanja人蔘; RRinsam; lit. human ginseng) is less expensive compared to rarely available wild ginseng. [10]

Wild cultivated ginseng ( Hangul장뇌삼; Hanja長腦蔘; RRjangnoesam) is planted on mountains by humans and is allowed to grow like wild ginseng.

Ginseng processing

Ginseng seed normally does not germinate until the second spring following the harvest of berries in the fall. They must first be subjected to a long period of storage in a moist medium with a warm/cold treatment, a process known as stratification. [11]

Korean ginseng (P. ginseng) is available commercially as fresh, red, and white ginsengs; wild ginseng is used only where available. [12]

Fresh ginseng

Fresh ginseng ( Hangul수삼; Hanja水蔘; RRsusam; lit. water ginseng), also called "green ginseng", is non-dried raw product. [13] Its use is limited by availability.

White ginseng

White ginseng ( Hangul백삼; Hanja白蔘; RRbaeksam; lit. white ginseng) is peeled and dried ginseng. [13] White ginseng is fresh ginseng which has been dried without being heated. It is peeled and dried to reduce the water content to 12% or less. White ginseng air-dried in the sun may contain less of the therapeutic constituents. Enzymes contained in the root may break down these constituents in the process of drying. Drying in the sun bleaches the root to a yellowish-white color.

Red ginseng

Red ginseng ( traditional Chinese: 紅蔘; simplified Chinese: 红参; pinyin: hóngshēn; Korean: 홍삼; romaja: hongsam; "red ginseng") is steamed and dried ginseng, which has reddish color. [13] Red ginseng is less vulnerable to decay than white ginseng. [14] It is ginseng that has been peeled, heated through steaming at standard boiling temperatures of 100 °C (212 °F), and then dried or sun-dried. It is frequently marinated in an herbal brew which results in the root becoming extremely brittle.

Production

Commercial ginseng is sold in over 35 countries. China has historically been the plant's largest consumer. In 2013, global sales of ginseng exceeded $2 billion, of which half was produced by South Korea. [9]

In the early 21st century, 99 percent of the world's 80,000 tons of ginseng was produced in just four countries: China (44,749 tons), South Korea (27,480 tons), Canada (6,486 tons), and the United States (1,054 tons). [9]

All ginseng produced in South Korea is Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), while ginseng produced in China includes P. ginseng and South China ginseng (P. notoginseng). [9] Ginseng produced in Canada and the United States is mostly American ginseng (P. quinquefolius). [9] [15]

Uses

Ginseng may be included in energy drinks or herbal teas in small amounts or sold as a dietary supplement. [3]

Culinary

The root is most often available in dried form, either whole or sliced. Ginseng leaf, although not as highly prized, is sometimes also used.

In Korean cuisine, ginseng is used in various banchan (side dishes) and guk (soups), as well as tea and alcoholic beverages. Ginseng-infused tea and liquor, known as insamcha ( literally "ginseng tea") and insamju ("ginseng liquor") is consumed.

Medicinal

Although ginseng has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, modern research is inconclusive about its biological effects. [3] [16] Preliminary clinical research indicates possible effects on memory, fatigue, menopause symptoms, and insulin response in people with mild diabetes. [3] Out of 44 studies examined between 2005–2015, 29 showed positive, limited evidence, and 15 showed no effects. [17] As of 2017, there is insufficient evidence to indicate that ginseng has any health effects. [3] [17] However ginsenosides, unique phytochemicals of the Panax species, are being studied for their potential biological properties. [3] [17]

Although the roots are used in traditional Chinese medicine, the leaves and stems contain larger quantities of the phytochemicals than the roots, and are easier to harvest. [18] The constituents include steroid saponins known as ginsenosides, [19] but the effects of these ginseng compounds have not been studied with high-quality clinical research as of 2017, and therefore remain unknown. [17] [3] [16]

Safety

Ginseng generally has a good safety profile and the incidence of adverse effects are minor when used over the short term. [3] [17]

Concerns exist when ginseng is used chronically, potentially causing side effects such as headaches, insomnia, and digestive problems. [3] [17] The risk of interactions between ginseng and prescription medications is believed to be low, but ginseng may have adverse effects when used with the blood thinner warfarin. [3] Ginseng also has adverse drug reactions with phenelzine, [20] and a potential interaction has been reported with imatinib, [21] resulting in hepatotoxicity, and with lamotrigine. [22]

Overdose

The common ginsengs (P. ginseng and P. quinquefolia) are generally considered to be relatively safe even in large amounts. [23] One of the most common and characteristic symptoms of an acute overdose of P. ginseng is bleeding. Symptoms of mild overdose may include dry mouth and lips, excitation, fidgeting, irritability, tremor, palpitations, blurred vision, headache, insomnia, increased body temperature, increased blood pressure, edema, decreased appetite, dizziness, itching, eczema, early morning diarrhea, bleeding, and fatigue. [8] [23]

Symptoms of gross overdose with P. ginseng may include nausea, vomiting, irritability, restlessness, urinary and bowel incontinence, fever, increased blood pressure, increased respiration, decreased sensitivity and reaction to light, decreased heart rate, cyanotic (blue) facial complexion, red facial complexion, seizures, convulsions, and delirium. [8] [23]

Other plants sometimes called ginseng

True ginseng plants belong only to the genus Panax. [8] Several other plants are sometimes referred to as ginseng, but they are from a different genus or even family. Siberian ginseng is in the same family, but not genus, as true ginseng. The active compounds in Siberian ginseng are eleutherosides, not ginsenosides. Instead of a fleshy root, Siberian ginseng has a woody root.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ginseng". Cambridge Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 2011-06-04.
  2. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stonger, and Andrew Gamble 2004
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Asian ginseng". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. September 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  4. ^ The word 參 shēn "plant root" itself, from Old Chinese *srəm, has been compared to words meaning 'root' in other languages of the Sino-Tibetan family such as Japhug tɤ-zrɤm "root", see Jacques, Guillaume (2015). "On the cluster *sr in Sino-Tibetan". Journal of Chinese Linguistics. 43 (1): 215–223.
  5. ^ Oxford Dictionaries Online, s.v. " Ginseng".
  6. ^ Mahady, Gail B.; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, N.R. (2001). Botanical Dietary Supplements. CRC Press. pp. 207–215. ISBN  978-90-265-1855-3.
  7. ^ Kim, Seonmin (2007). " Qing". Late Imperial China. 28 (1): 33–61. doi: 10.1353/late.2007.0009.
  8. ^ a b c d Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology, by John K. Chen, Tina T. Chen
  9. ^ a b c d e Baeg, In-Ho; So, Seung-Ho (2013). "The world ginseng market and the ginseng". Journal of Ginseng Research. 37 (1): 1–7. doi: 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.1. PMC  3659626. PMID  23717152.
  10. ^ a b Yun, Suh-young (26 July 2012). "All about wild ginseng". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  11. ^ "Care and Planting of Ginseng Seed and Roots". North Carolina State University. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  12. ^ "Asian Ginseng". NCCIH. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  13. ^ a b c "Teas Made from Ginseng, Jujubes and Omija". Pictorial Korea. Seoul, Korea. Korean Overseas Culture and Information Service. June 2000. p. 31. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  14. ^ Fulder, Stephen (1993). The book of ginseng (2nd ed.). Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press. p. 300. ISBN  0-89281-491-8. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  15. ^ "2016-nyeon insam tonggye-jaryo-jip" [Source book of ginseng statistics 2016 (in Korean)] (PDF). Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (in Korean). May 2017. pp. 2–4. Retrieved 24 February 2018. Lay summary (7 June 2017).
  16. ^ a b Shishtar, E; Sievenpiper, JL; Djedovic, V; Cozma, AI; Ha, V; Jayalath, VH; Jenkins, DJ; Meija, SB; de Souza, RJ; Jovanovski, E; Vuksan, V (2014). "The effect of ginseng (the genus panax) on glycemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials". PLoS ONE. 9 (9): e107391. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107391. PMC  4180277. PMID  25265315.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Kim Y-S, Woo Y-Y, Han C-K, Chang I-M (2015). "Safety Analysis of Panax Ginseng in Randomized Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review". Medicines. 2 (2): 106–126. doi: 10.3390/medicines2020106.
  18. ^ Hongwei Wang; Dacheng Peng; Jingtian Xie (2009). "Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions". Chinese Medicine. 4 (20). doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-4-20. PMC  2770043.
  19. ^ Attele, AS; Wu, J.A.; Yuan, C.S. (1999). "Ginseng pharmacology: multiple constituents and multiple actions". Biochemical Pharmacology. 58 (11): 1685–1693. doi: 10.1016/s0006-2952(99)00212-9. PMID  10571242.
  20. ^ Izzo AA, Ernst E (2001). "Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review". Drugs. 61 (15): 2163–75. doi: 10.2165/00003495-200161150-00002. PMID  11772128.
  21. ^ Bilgi N, Bell K, Ananthakrishnan AN, Atallah E (2010). "Imatinib and Panax ginseng: a potential interaction resulting in liver toxicity". The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 44 (5): 926–8. doi: 10.1345/aph.1M715. PMID  20332334.
  22. ^ Myers AP, Watson TA, Strock SB (2015). "Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Syndrome Probably Induced by a Lamotrigine-Ginseng Drug Interaction". Pharmacotherapy. 35 (3): e9–e12. doi: 10.1002/phar.1550. PMID  25756365.
  23. ^ a b c Shergis, J. L.; Zhang, A. L.; Zhou, W; Xue, C. C. (2013). "Panax ginseng in randomised controlled trials: A systematic review". Phytotherapy Research. 27 (7): 949–65. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4832. PMID  22969004.

Further reading