Ellicott City station Article

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Ellicott City Station
Ellicott City Station 1970.jpg
Ellicott City Station in 1970
Ellicott City station is located in Maryland
Ellicott City station
Ellicott City station is located in the US
Ellicott City station
Location Ellicott City, Maryland
Coordinates 39°16′2″N 76°47′43″W / 39.26722°N 76.79528°W / 39.26722; -76.79528
ELLICOTT CITY STATION Latitude and Longitude:

39°16′2″N 76°47′43″W / 39.26722°N 76.79528°W / 39.26722; -76.79528
Arealess than one acre
Built1830 (1830)
NRHP reference # 68000025 [1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHPNovember 24, 1968
Designated NHLNovember 24, 1968
Old Main Line
in 1917
0.0
Relay
2.5
Orange Grove
3.2
3.5
Ilchester Bridge
3.6
Ilchester
4.4
Lees
4.7
Gray
5.7
Ellicott City
6.2
Sucker Branch Bridge
7.9
Union Dam Tunnel
9.2
HS Tower
9.5
Hollofield
10.6
Daniels Bridge
10.9
Alberton
11.6
Brice Run Bridge
12.1
Dorsey’s Run Tunnel
12.7
Eureka Bridge
12.8
Line Run Bridge
12.9
Davis Tunnel
13.3
Davis
13.8
Davis Branch Bridge
14.6
Woodstock
17.1
Marriottsville
17.7
Henryton Bridge
17.8
17.9
Henryton
19.7
Gorsuch
21.6
Sykesville
22.4
Sykesville Tunnel
22.9
24.2
Hood’s Mill
26.1
Morgan
26.5
Woodbine Tunnel
26.8
Woodbine
26.9
Gillis Falls Bridge
29.5
Watersville
30.6
Watersville Junction
31.8
Mount Airy
32.6
Mount Airy Tunnel
33.9
Mount Airy Junction
37.4
Bush Creek Bridge
39.5
Monrovia
40.0
Monrovia Tower
42.9
Ijamsville
44.1
Hartman Tunnel
46.1
Reel’s Mill
47.4
47.5
Frederick Junction
43.5
Frederick
(South Market Street)
48.9
50.0
Lime Kiln
51.7
Buckeystown
53.7
Adamstown
53.9
Adamstown Junction
Adamstown Cutoff
58.0
Point of Rocks
Washington Junction
58.5
Point of Rocks Tunnel
60.1
Catoctin Tunnel

The Ellicott City Station is the oldest remaining passenger train station in the United States, and one of the oldest in the world. At the time of its construction in 1830 it was the terminus of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad line from Baltimore to Ellicott's Mills, Maryland and it incorporated features for the servicing of steam locomotives at the end of the 13 mile (21 km) run. The station, a National Historic Landmark, is now used as a museum.

Description

The station was built in 1830 at the end of the Oliver Viaduct, of local stone ( Ellicott City Granodiorite) provided by one of the quarries owned by the Ellicott family, which had founded the town and local flour mill in 1772. [2] The two-story stone building is built against the viaduct. A gabled roof is topped by a wood ventilating cupola. The upper level of the station is at the level of the tracks on the viaduct.

The Oliver Viaduct was the second major stone bridge built by the railroad (after the Carrollton Viaduct). It was 123 feet (37 m) long and comprised three 20 feet (6.1 m) arches. [3]:94 The viaduct was damaged by Hurricane Agnes in 1972, and has since been reconstructed. [4]

The station building was designed to allow engines to be pulled in on the upper level so that they could be worked on from below. A turntable with a diameter of 50 feet (15 m) was fitted in 1863 to permit locomotives to be turned around. The turntable was filled in after the rail line was extended, but the granite foundations remain. [2]

The railroad built an adjacent freight house, designed by E. Francis Baldwin, in 1885. The station is now used as a museum. [5]

History

The railroad's inaugural trip from Baltimore to Ellicott's Mills has held on May 22, 1830, with horse-drawn rail cars. Regular passenger service began on May 24. [6]:27

The B&O demonstrated its first locomotive, the Tom Thumb, at Ellicott's Mills in a famous race against a horse later in 1830. [3]:94–5 The railroad began using locomotives for passenger trains in 1832. [6]:30

The station is significant as the terminus of the original B&O railroad. The B&O was conceived as a means of re-establishing Baltimore as a major terminus of inland commerce, a position the city had lost with the advent of the Erie Canal. The commencement of construction on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, originating in nearby rival Washington, D.C., gave impetus to the use of a railroad for topographically-challenged Baltimore. From Ellicott's Mills the tracks reached Harpers Ferry, West Virginia in 1834, Cumberland, Maryland (the eventual terminus of the C&O Canal) by 1842, and Wheeling, West Virginia on the Ohio River in 1852. [4]

Museum

The Ellicott City Station is part of the Baltimore & Ohio Ellicott City Station Museum. [7] The museum was operated by the B&O Railroad Museum under partnership with Howard County from 2006 to 2017. [8] Beginning in September 2017, the museum was directly managed by Howard County's Department of Recreation & Parks. [9] Admission is free, although some special events and tours may carry a fee. [9]

Facilities at the B&O Ellicott City Station Museum include:

  • the original 1831 freight station with car house, later converted to a passenger station and now outfitted with period waiting rooms, a ticket/telegraph office, and office and living quarters for the freight agent [7]
  • a turntable, constructed in 1863 to turn engines so they could return to Baltimore [7]
  • the replacement freight station, designed by Ephraim Francis Baldwin and built in 1885 [7]
  • a caboose dating from 1927. [7]

A permanent HO-gauge model train layout is housed in the 1885 freight house; the layout is built as "the original thirteen miles of commercial rail track stretching from Baltimore to Ellicott Mills" [8], and train videos are projected onto the wall behind. Other static displays include memorabilia explaining the role of the B&O Railroad and the station in the American Civil War. The car house also hosts a holiday train layout in December. [9]

The Museum also offers living history interpretation, [8], reenactments, [7] guided group tours, [7] visiting exhibits, [7] educational programs and special events for school groups, families, and adults. [9]

See also

References

  1. ^ National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  2. ^ a b Maryland Department of Planning, Crownsville, MD. Maryland Historical Trust. "Ellicott City Station, B & O Railway." Inventory No. HO-71. Accessed 2011-12-24.
  3. ^ a b Dilts, James D. (1996). The Great Road: The Building of the Baltimore and Ohio, the Nation's First Railroad, 1828–1853. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN  978-0-8047-2629-0.
  4. ^ a b Mendinghall, Joseph Scott (February 25, 1975). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination: Ellicott City Station". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
  5. ^ "Ellicott City Station". Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum. Archived from the original on March 28, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  6. ^ a b *Harwood, Jr., Herbert H. (1994). Impossible Challenge II: Baltimore to Washington and Harpers Ferry from 1828 to 1994. Baltimore: Barnard, Roberts. ISBN  0-934118-22-1.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "Baltimore & Ohio Ellicott City Station Museum". Recreation and Parks Facilities. Howard County, Maryland. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
  8. ^ a b c "IMPORTANT CHANGES in the MANAGEMENT of the ELLICOTT CITY STATION MUSEUM". Ellicott City Station. B&O Railroad Museum. August 14, 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d "Howard County Recreation & Parks new managers of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Station at Ellicott City" (Press release). Ellicott City, Maryland: Howard County, Maryland. July 19, 2017. Retrieved December 22, 2017.

External links

Preceding station   Baltimore and Ohio   Following station
Old Main Line