Ellicott City Station
Ellicott City Station in 1970
|Location||Ellicott City, Maryland|
ELLICOTT CITY STATION Latitude and Longitude:
|Area||less than one acre|
|NRHP reference #||68000025 |
|Added to NRHP||November 24, 1968|
|Designated NHL||November 24, 1968|
Old Main Line
The Ellicott City Station is the oldest remaining passenger train station in the United States, and one of the oldest in the world. At the time of its construction in 1830 it was the terminus of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad line from Baltimore to Ellicott's Mills, Maryland and it incorporated features for the servicing of steam locomotives at the end of the 13 mile (21 km) run. The station, a National Historic Landmark, is now used as a museum.
The station was built in 1830 at the end of the Oliver Viaduct, of local stone ( Ellicott City Granodiorite) provided by one of the quarries owned by the Ellicott family, which had founded the town and local flour mill in 1772.  The two-story stone building is built against the viaduct. A gabled roof is topped by a wood ventilating cupola. The upper level of the station is at the level of the tracks on the viaduct.
The Oliver Viaduct was the second major stone bridge built by the railroad (after the Carrollton Viaduct). It was 123 feet (37 m) long and comprised three 20 feet (6.1 m) arches. :94 The viaduct was damaged by Hurricane Agnes in 1972, and has since been reconstructed. 
The station building was designed to allow engines to be pulled in on the upper level so that they could be worked on from below. A turntable with a diameter of 50 feet (15 m) was fitted in 1863 to permit locomotives to be turned around. The turntable was filled in after the rail line was extended, but the granite foundations remain. 
The railroad's inaugural trip from Baltimore to Ellicott's Mills has held on May 22, 1830, with horse-drawn rail cars. Regular passenger service began on May 24. :27
The B&O demonstrated its first locomotive, the Tom Thumb, at Ellicott's Mills in a famous race against a horse later in 1830. :94–5 The railroad began using locomotives for passenger trains in 1832. :30
The station is significant as the terminus of the original B&O railroad. The B&O was conceived as a means of re-establishing Baltimore as a major terminus of inland commerce, a position the city had lost with the advent of the Erie Canal. The commencement of construction on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, originating in nearby rival Washington, D.C., gave impetus to the use of a railroad for topographically-challenged Baltimore. From Ellicott's Mills the tracks reached Harpers Ferry, West Virginia in 1834, Cumberland, Maryland (the eventual terminus of the C&O Canal) by 1842, and Wheeling, West Virginia on the Ohio River in 1852. 
The Ellicott City Station is part of the Baltimore & Ohio Ellicott City Station Museum.  The museum was operated by the B&O Railroad Museum under partnership with Howard County from 2006 to 2017.  Beginning in September 2017, the museum was directly managed by Howard County's Department of Recreation & Parks.  Admission is free, although some special events and tours may carry a fee. 
Facilities at the B&O Ellicott City Station Museum include:
- the original 1831 freight station with car house, later converted to a passenger station and now outfitted with period waiting rooms, a ticket/telegraph office, and office and living quarters for the freight agent 
- a turntable, constructed in 1863 to turn engines so they could return to Baltimore 
- the replacement freight station, designed by Ephraim Francis Baldwin and built in 1885 
- a caboose dating from 1927. 
A permanent HO-gauge model train layout is housed in the 1885 freight house; the layout is built as "the original thirteen miles of commercial rail track stretching from Baltimore to Ellicott Mills" , and train videos are projected onto the wall behind. Other static displays include memorabilia explaining the role of the B&O Railroad and the station in the American Civil War. The car house also hosts a holiday train layout in December. 
The Museum also offers living history interpretation, , reenactments,  guided group tours,  visiting exhibits,  educational programs and special events for school groups, families, and adults. 
- List of Howard County properties in the Maryland Historical Trust
- Old Main Line Subdivision
- Trolley Line Number 9 Trail
- List of National Historic Landmarks in Maryland
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Howard County, Maryland
- National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- Maryland Department of Planning, Crownsville, MD. Maryland Historical Trust. "Ellicott City Station, B & O Railway." Inventory No. HO-71. Accessed 2011-12-24.
- Dilts, James D. (1996). The Great Road: The Building of the Baltimore and Ohio, the Nation's First Railroad, 1828–1853. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-2629-0.
- Mendinghall, Joseph Scott (February 25, 1975). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination: Ellicott City Station". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
- "Ellicott City Station". Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum. Archived from the original on March 28, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- *Harwood, Jr., Herbert H. (1994). Impossible Challenge II: Baltimore to Washington and Harpers Ferry from 1828 to 1994. Baltimore: Barnard, Roberts. ISBN 0-934118-22-1.
- "Baltimore & Ohio Ellicott City Station Museum". Recreation and Parks Facilities. Howard County, Maryland. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
- "IMPORTANT CHANGES in the MANAGEMENT of the ELLICOTT CITY STATION MUSEUM". Ellicott City Station. B&O Railroad Museum. August 14, 2017.
- "Howard County Recreation & Parks new managers of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Station at Ellicott City" (Press release). Ellicott City, Maryland: Howard County, Maryland. July 19, 2017. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ellicott City Station.|
- Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. MD-13, " Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Ellicott's Mills Station, South Side of State Route 144, Ellicott City, Howard County, MD", 13 photos, 2 photo caption pages
|Preceding station||Baltimore and Ohio||Following station|
toward Point of Rocks
|Old Main Line||
toward Baltimore Camden