Cornish Americans Information

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Cornish Americans
Kernowyon yn Amerika
Total population
2 million
Regions with significant populations
  California,   Minnesota,   Michigan,   Pennsylvania and   Wisconsin
Languages
English ( American English dialects) Cornish
Related ethnic groups
Cornish, Welsh Americans, Breton Americans, Manx Americans, Scottish Americans, Scotch-Irish Americans, Irish Americans

Cornish Americans ( Cornish: Kernowyon yn Amerika) are Americans who describe themselves as having Cornish ancestry, an ethnic group of Brittonic Celts native to Cornwall and the Scilly Isles in the United Kingdom.

The region was once a part of the ancient Brythonic kingdom of Dumnonia (whose inhabitants had also migrated to and founded Brittany in modern France) before the east of this land was annexed by invading Anglo-Saxons in 822 AD [1] and the remainder (modern Cornwall, the Scilly Isles, and possibly some western parts of Devonshire) remained in Brythonic hands as the kingdom of Kernow, which survived until the mid 11th century AD before being subsumed into England.

However, the Cornish people (like the Welsh and Bretons who both remained largely independent until the 16th century AD) continued to retain a distinct Brittonic ethnicity, identity, culture and language long after this, unlike the native Brittonic Celts in the rest of what is today England, Scotland and the Isle of Man, who, along with their myriad of kingdoms, were gradually subsumed by Anglo-Saxons and Gaelic-Celtic Scots respectively, largely between the 6th and 11th centuries AD (see Celtic Britons).

Cornish surnames and personal names remain common, and are often distinct from Irish, Scottish and Welsh names, although there is a similarity to Welsh and Breton names in many instances. Similarly, the majority of place names in Cornwall are still Brittonic. The Cornish language had died out as a primary spoken language by the end of the 18th century, but a revival of the tongue has been ongoing since the early 20th century.

Cornish ancestry is not recognized on the United States Census. There are estimated to be close to 2 million people of Cornish descent in the U.S which is close to four times the present population of Cornwall in the United Kingdom which stands at approximately 550,000 [2], although people of Cornish ancestry also live in other parts of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland thus the population of Cornwall should not be conflated with the total Cornish population of the United Kingdom.

Cornish emigration to the United States

Tangier Island is an island in lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia: some inhabitants have a Cornish accent that traces back to the Cornish settlers who arrived there in 1686. [3]

The coincidence of the decline of the mining industry in Cornwall in the 19th century and the discovery of large amounts of mineral deposits abroad meant that Cornish families headed overseas for work. Each decade between 1861 and 1901, a fifth of the entire Cornish male population migrated abroad – three times the average for England and Wales. In total, the county lost over a quarter of a million people between 1841 and 1901. [4]

Large numbers of Cornish people moved to the United States, and while some stayed in New York City and other East Coast ports after arriving, many moved inland to mining areas in California, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania and Michigan. One such area was Mineral Point, Wisconsin, in which the largest group of immigrants were Cornish miners attracted to the lead mining opportunities, and by 1845 roughly half of the town's population had Cornish ancestry. [5] Today the Cornish town of Redruth is twinned with Mineral Point.

Cornish culture in the United States

A "Cousin Jack's" pasty shop in Grass Valley, California

Mineral Point, Wisconsin serves Cornish food, such as pasties and figgyhobbin, [6] and Cornish pasties are sold at ex-Cornish mining towns in America, especially in Butte, Montana [7] and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

In California, statues and monuments in many towns pay tribute to the influence of the Cornish on their development. [8] In the city of Grass Valley, the tradition of singing Cornish carols lives on and one local historian of the area says the songs have become "the identity of the town". Some of the members of today's Cornish Carol Choir are in fact descendants of the original Cornish gold miners. The city holds St Piran's Day celebrations every year, which along with carol singing, includes a flag raising ceremony, games involving the Cornish pasty, and Cornish wrestling competitions. [9] The city is twinned with Bodmin in Cornwall.

Cornish culture continues to have an influence in the Copper Country of northern Michigan, the Iron Ranges of northern Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, and Butte, Montana. [7]

Cornish immigrant miners are depicted in the TV series Deadwood, speaking their native language, even though Cornish had died out in the 18th century before a revival in the 20th century; the actors in the relevant scenes are, in fact, speaking Irish, a fellow Celtic language, but not mutually intelligible as Irish/Gaelic is from a different branch of the Celtic languages, whereas Cornish being much closer to, and a part of the same branch, as the still thriving Welsh and Breton, and the now extinct Brittonic languages of Great Britain such as Cumbric and Pictish. [10]

Legends of the Fall, a novella by American author Jim Harrison, detailing the lives of a Cornish American family in the early 20th century, contains several Cornish language terms. These were also included in the Academy Award-winning film of the same name starring Anthony Hopkins as Col. William Ludlow and Brad Pitt as Tristan Ludlow. [11]

The fictional character Conan the Barbarian is not depicted as Cornish, however the name Conan is a Brittonic Cornish name.

Notable people

President Truman, possibly a Cornish Tremaine

Several notable Americans were either born in Cornwall or have family connections to the county.

See also

References

  1. ^ Major, Albany (1913). Early Wars of Wessex. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 92–98.(reissued by Blandford Press, ISBN  0-7137-2068-9)
  2. ^ https://www.cornwall.gov.uk/council-and-democracy/data-and-research/data-by-topic/population/
  3. ^ "迷わないメル友選び". Gotangierisland.com. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  4. ^ "BBC - Legacies - Immigration and Emigration - England - Cornwall - I'm alright Jack - Article Page 1". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  5. ^ Nesbit, Robert C. (1989). Wisconsin: A History. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN  0-299-10804-X.
  6. ^ "Shops & Restaurants - Pendarvis". Pendarvis.wisconsinhistory.org. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  7. ^ a b "The Butte Pasty - The Foods of the World Forum". Foodsoftheworld.activeboards.net. Retrieved 2016-07-30.
  8. ^ "Missing - Thebannerofpiran". Archive.is. 28 June 2007. Archived from the original on 28 June 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-16. Retrieved 2012-09-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link)
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. Retrieved 2011-04-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link)
  11. ^ "The Celtic Languages in Contact". Books.google.com. p. 204. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  12. ^ Payton, Philip. The Cornish Overseas, 2005.
  13. ^ "Trevorrow Name Meaning & Trevorrow Family History at Ancestry.co.uk". www.ancestry.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-12-20.
  14. ^ Kent, Alan M. Cousin Jack's Mouth Organ: Travels in Cornish America, 2004
  15. ^ Eastman, Dick (April 8, 2012). "Last Friday's Who Do You Think You Are? with Edie Falco". Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
  16. ^ "Edie Falco, Who Do You Think You Are?". Edie Falco, Who Do You Think You Are?. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
  17. ^ Butler, Gillian; John Butler; Ren Kempthorne (2000). Karanza Whelas Karanza, The Story of the Kempthornes, 1300-2000.
  18. ^ Trethewey, Natasha (2007). Native Guard. New York, USA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN  0-618-60463-4.
  19. ^ "Photos from the May 8, 2007 celebration to honor Natasha Trethewey for her Pulitzer Prize-winning collection of poetry, Native Guard". The Creative Writing Program at Emory University. Emory University. Archived from the original on August 14, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-18.
  20. ^ "Cornish Surnames - extensive A-Z list". Ancestry.com. Retrieved 2011-06-18.
  21. ^ Sawyers, June Skinner Famous Firsts of Scottish-Americans Pelican Publishing, 1996; p. 11
  22. ^ "ROOTED IN HISTORY: The Genealogy of Harry S. Truman". Truman Library. Retrieved 2016-07-30.
  23. ^ Ancestors of American Presidents, Gary Boyd Roberts, Published by Carl Boyer III, 1995, Santa Clara CA, p44
  24. ^ Ancestors of American Presidents, Gary Boyd Roberts, Published by Carl Boyer III, 1995, Santa Clara CA, p275

Further reading

  • Cornish, Joseph H. The History and Genealogy of the Cornish Families in America. Higginson Book Company. 2003. ASIN: B0006S85H6.
  • Ewart, Shirley. Highly Respectable Families: the Cornish of Grass Valley, California 1854-1954 (Nevada County Pioneers Series). Comstock Bonanza Press. October 1998. ISBN  978-0-933994-18-8.
  • Magnaghi, Russell M. Cornish in Michigan (Discovering the Peoples of Michigan Series). Michigan State University Press. October 2007. ISBN  978-0-87013-787-7.
  • Payton, Philip The Cornish Overseas. Cornwall Editions Limited. April 2005. ISBN  978-1-904880-04-2.
  • Rowse, A. L. The Cornish in America. Redruth: Dyllansow Truran. June 1991. ISBN  978-1-85022-059-6.
  • Todd, Arthur C. The Cornish Miner in America: the Contribution to the Mining History of the United States by Emigrant Cornish Miners: the Men Called Cousin Jacks. Arthur H. Clark (publisher). September 1995. ISBN  978-0-87062-238-0.
  • White, Helen M. Cornish Cousins of Minnesota, Lost and Found: St. Piran's Society of Minnesota. Minnesota Heritage Publications. 1997. ASIN: B0006QP60M.

External links