Coreopsis Article

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Coreopsis
Coreopsisgigantea.jpg
Coreopsis gigantea
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Supertribe: Helianthodae
Tribe: Coreopsideae
Genus: Coreopsis
L.
Species

Many, see text

Synonyms

Acispermum Neck.
Calliopsis Rchb.
Epilepis Benth.
Leptosyne DC.
Pugiopappus A.Gray
Selleophytum Urb.
Tuckermannia Nutt. [1]

Coreopsis /ˌkɒrˈɒpsɪs/ [2] is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Common names include calliopsis and tickseed, a name shared with various other plants.

Description

These plants range from 46–120 cm (18–47 in) in height. A common name for Coreopsis is Tickseed. [3] The flowers are usually yellow with a toothed tip. They are also yellow-and red bicolor. [3] The flat fruits are small and dry and look like bugs. Many of its species are cultivated. The 75 to 80 Coreopsis species are native to North, Central, and South America. They have showy flower heads with involucral bracts in two distinct series of eight each, the outer being commonly connate at the base. The name Coreopsis is derived from the Greek words κόρις (koris), meaning " bedbug", and ὄψις (opsis), meaning "view", referring to the shape of the achene. [4] [5]

Uses

Coreopsis, Kansas wildflower

Coreopsis species are used as nector and pollen for insects. [3] The species is known to specifically provide food to caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora acamtopappi. The sunny, summer blooming, daisy-like flowers are popular in gardens to attract butterflies. Both annual and perennials types are grown in the home garden (USDA Hardiness Zone 7a/6b). [3] In this Mid-Atlantic region insects as bees, hover flies, wasps are observed visiting the flowers. [3]

All Coreopsis species were designated the state wildflower of Florida in the United States in 1991. [6]

In the language of flowers, Coreopsis means to be always cheerful, while Coreopsis arkansa stands for love at first sight. [7]

Taxonomy

Coreopsis is a variable genus closely related to Bidens. In fact, neither Coreopsis nor Bidens, as defined in the 20th century, is strictly monophyletic. Coreopsis is best described as paraphyletic. Previously (1936) Coreopsis was classified into 11 sections and 114 species, but the African species were subsequently reclassified as Bidens, leaving the North and South American species under Coreopsis, some 75-80 in all. 45 are in the 11 North American sections, and the remaining 35 are in the South American Section Pseudoagarista. The North American species fall into two broad groups, with 5 sections in Mexico and North America (12 species) and the remaining 5 sections in Eastern North America (26 species). [4]

One group which does seem to be monophyletic consists of temperate species from North America, including five sections of Coreopsis, Bidens coronata and Bidens tripartita, and the genus Thelesperma (five species). [8]

Distribution and habitat

Native North American coreopsis can be found in two habitats In the wild they can be found growing along roadsides and open fields throughout the Eastern United States and Canada. In this environment the plant will self-sow.

Cultivation

Coreopsis can grow also in a garden as a border plant or in a container. Here the plant prefers well-drained soil. Remove spent flowers so that the plant does not become weedy. Using the USDA Hardiness Zones, will identify what soil and climate is preferred for different cultivars or species. [9] Notable species found in cultivation are C. grandiflora, C. verticillata and their various cultivars.

Classification

Sections

One classification (GRIN) of the genus consists of eleven sections, [1] shown by cladistic relationships with number of species in parenthesis. [4]

Mexico and Western North America

Coreopsis sect. Electra (3)
Coreopsis sect. Anathysana (1)
Coreopsis sect. Tuckermannia (2)
Coreopsis sect. Pugiopappus (3)
Coreopsis sect. Leptosyne (3)

Eastern North America

Coreopsis sect. Silphidium (1)
Coreopsis sect. Gyrophyllum (syn. Palmatae) [10] (6)
Coreopsis sect. Calliopsis (3)
Coreopsis sect. Eublepharis (7)
Coreopsis sect. Coreopsis (9)

South America

Coreopsis sect. Pseudoagarista (35)

Selected species

See: [11] [12]

Section Anathysana

Section Calliopsis

Section Coreopsis

Section Electra

Section Eublepharis

Section Gyrophyllum (syn. Palmatae)

Section Leptosyne

Section Pseudoagarista

South America, 35 species

Section Pugiopappus

Section Silphidium

Section Tuckermannia

Formerly placed here

References

  1. ^ a b "Genus: Coreopsis L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. January 6, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ a b c d e "Coreopsis For the Mid-Atlantic Region Research Report". December 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  4. ^ a b c Kim, Seung-Chul; Daniel J. Crawford; Mesfin Tadesse; Mary Berbee; Fred R. Ganders; Mona Pirseyedi; Elizabeth J. Esselman (September–July 1999). "ITS sequences and phylogenetic relationships in Bidens and Coreopsis (Asteraceae)". Systematic Botany. 24 (3): 480–493. doi: 10.2307/2419701. Check date values in: |date= ( help)
  5. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: A-C. CRC Press. p. 615. ISBN  978-0-8493-2675-2.
  6. ^ Main, Martin B.; Ginger M. Allen. "Florida State Symbols". Electronic Data Information Source. University of Florida IFAS Extension. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  7. ^ "Language of Flowers - Flower Meanings, Flower Sentiments". www.languageofflowers.com. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  8. ^ Crawford, D. J.; Mort, M. E. (2005). "Phylogeny of Eastern North American Coreopsis (Asteraceae-Coreopsideae): insights from nuclear and plastid sequences, and comments on character evolution". American Journal of Botany. 92 (2): 330–6. doi: 10.3732/ajb.92.2.330. PMID  21652409.
  9. ^ "tickseed". USDA plants website. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  10. ^ Flora of North America
  11. ^ a b "Species Records of Coreopsis". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  12. ^ "Coreopsis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved June 6, 2010.

Sources

External links