Callaway County, Missouri Article

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Callaway County, Missouri
Fulton County Missouri Courthouse 01.JPG
The Callaway County Courthouse in Fulton
Map of Missouri highlighting Callaway County
Location in the U.S. state of Missouri
Map of the United States highlighting Missouri
Missouri's location in the U.S.
FoundedNovember 25, 1820
Named for James Callaway
Seat Fulton
Largest cityFulton
Area
 • Total847 sq mi (2,194 km2)
 • Land835 sq mi (2,163 km2)
 • Water13 sq mi (34 km2), 1.5%
Population (est.)
 • ( 2015)44,834
 • Density53/sq mi (20/km2)
Congressional district 3rd
Time zone Central: UTC−6/ −5
Website callawaycounty.org

Callaway County is a county located in the U.S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 United States Census, the county's population was 44,332. [1] Its county seat is Fulton. [2] With a a border formed by the Missouri River, the county was organized November 25, 1820, and named for Captain James Callaway, grandson of Daniel Boone. [3] Callaway County has been historically referred to as "The Kingdom of Callaway" after a 19th-century incident in which some residents confronted Union troops, during the U.S. Civil War. [4]

Callaway County is part of the Jefferson City, MO Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Vineyards and wineries were first established in the area by German immigrants in the mid-19th century. Among the first mentioned in county histories are those around the southeastern Callaway settlement of Heilburn, a community neighboring Portland, on the Missouri River. [5] Since the 1960s, there has been a revival of winemaking there and throughout Missouri.

The Callaway Nuclear Generating Station is located in Callaway County, near Fulton.

History

This area was historically occupied by the Osage and other Native American peoples, some of whom migrated from east of the Ohio River Valley. Others emerged as cultures in this area, following thousands of years of settlement by indigenous peoples.[ citation needed]

The European-American settlement of Callaway County was largely by migrants from the Upper South states of Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, with an additional substantial influx of German immigrants starting in the 1830s [6], as was the case with other counties along the Missouri River. Some of them brought African-American slaves and slaveholding traditions with them, and quickly started cultivating hemp and tobacco, the same crops as were grown in Middle Tennessee and Kentucky. Given their culture and traditions, this area became known as Little Dixie. [7] By 1860 slaves made up 25 percent or more of the county's population, [8] a higher percentage than in most parts of the slave state. In an unusual case, an African-American woman known as "Slave Teney" was lynched by whites near Fulton on October 27, 1860, after she confessed to killing the daughter of her mistress. [9] [10] Whites abused their slaves but did not usually kill them because they were valuable property, but the people of the town were outraged at Teney's attack on the daughter.[ citation needed]

Callaway and Lewis County Missouri pioneer families were among influential early settlers of the nascent state of California. Callaway families were instrumental in establishing new US settlements in areas of California near the Oregon border as they entered the state via the Oregon Trail, then southward toward San Francisco. Lewis County relatives were key in the building of Sacramento and development of viticulture in the California Central Valley and areas north of San Francisco Bay. Some of these Missouri families, later key US/Unionist advocates and military personnel during the US Civil War, held early local and statewide political offices in California. [11]

While a large percentage, possibly a majority, of Callaway residents are reported to have supported the Confederacy during the Civil War, the minutes of the US Congressional hearing on the legitimacy of war-era elections in Callaway County include reports of substantial election meddling and voter harassment and intimidation, summarized in the 1867-68 US Congressional 'Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives' describing Confederate support issues in the county from various viewpoints for prominent citizens, making it clear that there was also substantial support in the county for Union/US government among citizens often intimidated into silence. The amount of censorship and bias in reports makes it difficult to ascertain exact percentages of Union or Confederate sympathies in the county. [12]

The Battle of Moore's Mill was the only significant Civil War battle that took place in Callaway County. The county was called 'Kingdom of Callaway' due to what one published history source (in bibliography below) described as a truce with US/Union forces that allowed Confederate advocates to continue to operate under surveillance, in proximity to the Missouri government offices in Jefferson City. One published historical reference (in bibliography) indicates there may have been over twice as many Confederate as US/Union troops in Callaway. While the old Civil War still festered in Callaway, a so-called " Confederate government of Missouri" set up offices in southwest Missouri near the northwest corner border of Arkansas, while a line almost straight south along the Arkansas-Oklahoma border connected it to a known Texas-affiliate (and possibly controlling) office set up across from the southwest corner of Arkansas in Marshall, Texas.

Despite the Confederate-labeled upstarts of the mid-1800s, according to "A Short History of Callaway County" by Ovid Bell, the publisher for years of the (county seat) Fulton Daily Sun Gazette, "Fulton was occupied during the greater part of the war by Union soldiers and militia, and Southern (i.e. Confederate) sympathizers were in constant fear of imprisonment and death." US forces loyal to the Union were raised by Captains William T Snell, Henry Thomas, and JJP Johnson; who were in turn reinforced by troops under General John B Henderson from the town of Louisiana in Pike County, Missouri. [13]

After the late-1860s Reconstruction era, an element of 'white' residents in the state and county worked to restore what some have labeled ' white supremacy'. Primitive violence against black people reached a peak around the turn of the 20th century, and some radicalized, fanatical white people lynched a total of four African Americans in the county. [14] They included Ham Peterson in May 1884, killed because his brother spoke disrespectfully to whites; an unnamed African-American man killed by a mob in October 1884, after being accused of raping a young girl; and Emmett Divens, lynched August 15, 1895. [9] [15]

Other settlers in the Missouri River valley included German immigrants from the mid-19th century following the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states; they established a strong wine industry in the area and built towns with German-influenced architecture, concentrated substantially in counties south of Callaway and across the Missouri River, celebrated annually in the Maifest events in the Gasconade county seat, Hermann. Missouri was the second-largest wine-producing state nationally until Prohibition. Since the 1960s, numerous vineyards and wineries have been established again in the river valley, including Summit Lake Winery in Holts Summit. One definition of the Missouri Rhineland can be found in a Chicago Tribune article of September, 2018. [16]

Callaway has remained largely agricultural, economically, with its rich farmlands, yet borders Missouri's capital city and Lincoln University (Missouri) in Cole County, to the south, and the main University of Missouri campus in Columbia, 40 miles or less from the most populous areas of the county. Callaway County has for years hosted William Woods University and Westminster College in the county seat, Fulton, while Osage county, to the south, hosts the State Technical College of Missouri in Linn.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 847 square miles (2,190 km2), of which 835 square miles (2,160 km2) is land and 13 square miles (34 km2) (1.5%) is water. [17]

The northern part of the county is relatively flat and devoid of large tracts of forests. The southern border of the county is the Missouri River, and the area is heavily forested over large hills and valleys. Cedar Creek makes up the bulk of the county's western border. Jefferson City lies across the Missouri River from the southwestern corner of the county. [18] [19]

Adjacent counties

Major highways

National protected areas

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18306,159
184011,76591.0%
185013,82717.5%
186017,44926.2%
187019,20210.0%
188023,67023.3%
189025,1316.2%
190025,9843.4%
191024,400−6.1%
192023,007−5.7%
193019,923−13.4%
194023,09415.9%
195023,3161.0%
196023,8582.3%
197025,8508.3%
198032,25224.8%
199032,8091.7%
200040,76624.3%
201044,3328.7%
Est. 201645,078 [20]1.7%
U.S. Decennial Census [21]
1790-1960 [22] 1900-1990 [23]
1990-2000 [24] 2010-2015 [1]

As of the census [25] of 2000, there were 40,766 people, 14,416 households, and 10,336 families residing in the county. The population density was 49 people per square mile (19/km²). There were 16,167 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile (7/km²). The racial makeup of the county was self-identified as 91.79% White, 5.66% Black or African American, 0.52% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, and 1.21% from two or more races. Approximately 0.92% of the population identified as Hispanic or Latino of any race. 29.9% identified as of German ancestry, 22.0% s American, 9.1% as Irish (including Scots-Irish) and 9.1% as English ancestry.

There were 14,416 households out of which 35.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.10% were married couples living together, 10.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.30% were non-families. 23.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 11.10% from 18 to 24, 31.00% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, and 11.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $39,110, and the median income for a family was $44,474. Males had a median income of $29,574 versus $22,317 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,005. About 6.00% of families and 8.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.30% of those under age 18 and 8.30% of those age 65 or over.

Education

Public schools

Private schools

Post-secondary

Public libraries

Politics

Local

The Republican Party mostly controls politics at the local level in Callaway County.

Callaway County, Missouri
Elected countywide officials
Assessor Jody Paschal Republican
Circuit Clerk Judy O. Groner Republican
County Clerk Denise Hubbard Republican
Collector Pam J. Oestreich Democratic
Commissioner
(Presiding)
Gary Jungermann Republican
Commissioner
(District 1)
Randall L. Kleindienst Republican
Commissioner
(District 2)
Donald “Doc” Kritzer Republican
Prosecuting Attorney Christopher Wilson Republican
Public Administrator Karen Digh Rebublican
Recorder Christine Kleindienst Republican
Sheriff Clay Chism Republican
Treasurer Debbie Zerr Republican

State

Past Gubernatorial Elections Results
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 57.95% 11,149 38.15% 7,340 3.89% 749
2012 52.30% 9,486 44.17% 8,012 3.53% 640
2008 49.78% 9,596 48.63% 9,375 1.59% 306
2004 57.27% 10,153 41.59% 7,373 1.13% 201
2000 43.62% 6,641 53.40% 8,129 2.98% 453
1996 32.91% 4,314 63.91% 8,379 3.18% 417

Callaway County is divided into two legislative districts in the Missouri House of Representatives, both of which are held by Republicans.

Missouri House of Representatives — District 43 — Callaway County (2016)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jay D. Houghton 3,169 72.93% +0.90
Democratic Ed Lockwood 1,176 27.07% -0.90
Missouri House of Representatives — District 43 — Callaway County (2014)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jay Houghton 1,816 72.03% +7.71
Democratic Ed Lockwood 705 27.97% -7.71
Missouri House of Representatives — District 43 — Callaway County (2012)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jay Houghton 2,653 64.32%
Democratic Ed Lockwood 1,472 35.68%
  • District 49 — Travis Fitzwater (R- Holts Summit). Consists of the communities of Fulton, Holts Summit, Kingdom City, Lake Mykee Town, Mokane, New Bloomfield, and Tebbetts.
Missouri House of Representatives — District 49 — Callaway County (2016)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Travis Fitzwater 12,448 100.00% +38.22
Missouri House of Representatives — District 49 — Callaway County (2014)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Travis Fitzwater 5,126 61.78% -8.44
Democratic Gracia Yancey Backer 3,171 38.22% +8.44
Missouri House of Representatives — District 49 — Callaway County (2012)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jeanie Riddle 9,610 70.22%
Democratic Pamela Murray 4,075 29.78%

All of Callaway County is a part of Missouri’s 10th District in the Missouri Senate and is currently represented by Jeanie Riddle (R- Fulton).

Missouri Senate — District 10 — Callaway County (2014)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jeanie Riddle 7,993 73.66%
Democratic Ed Schieffer 2,858 26.34%

Federal

U.S. Senate — Missouri — Callaway County (2016)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Roy Blunt 10,983 57.24% +9.19
Democratic Jason Kander 7.084 36.92% -7.27
Libertarian Jonathan Dine 534 2.78% -4.98
Green Johnathan McFarland 238 1.24% +1.24
Constitution Fred Ryman 347 1.81% +1.81
U.S. Senate — Missouri — Callaway County (2012)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Todd Akin 8,664 48.05%
Democratic Claire McCaskill 7,968 44.19%
Libertarian Jonathan Dine 1,399 7.76%

All of Callaway County is included in Missouri’s 3rd Congressional District and is currently represented by Blaine Luetkemeyer (R- St. Elizabeth) in the U.S. House of Representatives.

U.S. House of Representatives — Missouri’s 3rd Congressional District — Callaway County (2016)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Blaine Luetkemeyer 13,591 71.75% +2.15
Democratic Kevin Miller 4,507 23.79% -1.67
Libertarian Dan Hogan 600 3.17% -1.74
Constitution Doanita Simmons 245 1.29% +1.29
U.S. House of Representatives — Missouri's 3rd Congressional District — Callaway County (2014)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Blaine Luetkemeyer 7,518 69.60% +1.71
Democratic Courtney Denton 2,750 25.46% -2.61
Libertarian Steven Hedrick 530 4.91% +0.87
Write-in Harold Davis 3 0.03% +0.03
U.S. House of Representatives — Missouri's 3rd Congressional District — Callaway County (2012)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Blaine Luetkemeyer 12,122 67.89%
Democratic Eric C. Meyer 5,012 28.07%
Libertarian Steven Wilson 722 4.04%

Political culture

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results [27]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 67.5% 13,057 25.8% 4,989 6.7% 1,287
2012 64.4% 11,745 33.3% 6,071 2.3% 416
2008 58.8% 11,389 39.1% 7,580 2.1% 397
2004 62.5% 11,108 36.9% 6,559 0.6% 106
2000 53.8% 8,238 43.8% 6,708 2.4% 362
1996 42.4% 5,567 44.8% 5,880 12.9% 1,690
1992 34.9% 4,880 41.5% 5,799 23.6% 3,302
1988 56.0% 6,687 43.6% 5,209 0.4% 42
1984 65.6% 8,262 34.4% 4,327
1980 52.6% 6,755 43.3% 5,560 4.1% 520
1976 50.9% 5,115 48.2% 4,843 1.0% 101
1972 67.5% 6,313 32.5% 3,036
1968 46.0% 4,277 40.2% 3,738 13.7% 1,276
1964 33.5% 2,983 66.5% 5,916
1960 43.1% 4,054 56.9% 5,344
1956 40.9% 3,572 59.1% 5,165
1952 41.0% 3,818 58.8% 5,484 0.2% 19
1948 28.1% 2,433 71.8% 6,215 0.1% 10
1944 35.2% 3,143 64.5% 5,757 0.3% 24
1940 33.2% 3,574 66.6% 7,162 0.2% 21
1936 30.2% 3,112 69.6% 7,160 0.2% 21
1932 22.7% 2,079 76.8% 7,042 0.6% 51
1928 38.8% 3,269 61.1% 5,153 0.2% 15
1924 31.7% 2,799 66.8% 5,904 1.5% 133
1920 35.1% 3,274 64.6% 6,035 0.3% 30
1916 33.9% 2,009 65.6% 3,882 0.5% 28
1912 28.2% 1,525 65.6% 3,544 6.2% 333
1908 32.7% 1,911 66.4% 3,878 1.0% 56
1904 32.3% 1,765 65.8% 3,596 1.9% 105
1900 30.8% 1,864 68.3% 4,133 0.9% 56
1896 29.5% 1,849 69.4% 4,358 1.1% 71
1892 27.4% 1,453 68.4% 3,620 4.2% 223
1888 29.2% 1,624 70.3% 3,912 0.5% 29

Missouri presidential preference primary (2008)

  • Former U.S. Senator Hillary Clinton (D- New York) received more votes, a total of 2,701, than any candidate from either party in Callaway County during the 2008 presidential primary.
Callaway County, Missouri
2008 Republican primary in Missouri
John McCain1,203 (27.08%)
Mike Huckabee1,517 (34.14%)
Mitt Romney1,457 (32.79%)
Ron Paul196 (4.41%)
Callaway County, Missouri
2008 Democratic primary in Missouri
Hillary Clinton2,701 (54.71%)
Barack Obama2,037 (41.26%)
John Edwards (withdrawn)153 (3.10%)

Communities

Cities

Villages

Unincorporated communities

Townships over time

Administrative Townships in Callaway County were created Feb 12, 1821, at which time there were only two: Cote Sans Dessein Township generally included areas west of a line along the Auxvasse River (now called Auxvasse Creek) until it met about 91W45 longitude, where the boundary then continued straight north. Auxvasse Township (which never included the city of Auxvasse) included all areas east of that line, but this was quickly changed, within about 3 months. On May 14, 1821, a new larger-than-today Round Prairie Township originally covered NW Callaway County, and the next day an Elizabeth (later renamed Fulton) Township was created in the center of the county, along with a later-subdivided Nine Mile Prairie Township that included NE Callaway County. More changes took place only a few years afterward with the creation of a larger-than-today Cedar Township Nov 13, 1824 that initially covered the SW corner of the county; then a new Bourbon Township (from northern Round Prairie) was created Feb 21, 1825; a later-subdivided Liberty Township Feb 24, 1838 and Jackson Township Dec 25, 1875 in north county; Calwood Township Feb 23, 1876; Caldwell Township Jun 5, 1883. These were followed between 1883 and 1897 by the creation of St Aubert, Summit, and Guthrie townships in SW Callaway; and McCredie and Shamrock townships in northern Callaway. Then, over 100 years later, West Fulton divided from Fulton Township (later renamed East Fulton) in the 2000s. More details on the boundaries, included cities and towns, and impact on previous boundaries are included in the articles below:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 31 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  3. ^ Eaton, David Wolfe (1916). How Missouri Counties, Towns and Streams Were Named. The State Historical Society of Missouri. p. 267.
  4. ^ Kingdom of Callaway Historical Society
  5. ^ Provines, John G: 'History of Callaway County' article in the 'Illustrated Historical Atlas of Callaway County'. Philadelphia PA: Edwards Brothers, 1876.
  6. ^ Provines, John G: 'History of Callaway County' in 'Illustrated Historical Atlas of Callaway County', 1876.
  7. ^ "The Story of Little Dixie, Missouri", Missouri Division-Sons of Confederate Veterans, accessed 3 June 2008
  8. ^ T. J. Stiles, Jesse James: The Last Rebel of the Civil War, New York: Vintage Books, 2003, pp.10–11
  9. ^ a b Danny Lewis, "This Map Shows Over a Century of Documented Lynchings in the United States", Smithsonian Magazine, 24 January 2017; accessed 13 April 2018
  10. ^ Kerry Segrave, Lynchings of Women in the United States: The Recorded Cases, 1851–1946, New York: McFarland, 2010, p. 22
  11. ^ Mather, Otis. "Six Generations of LaRues and Allied Families". (Hodgenville & Louisville, KY: C T Dearing Printing Co, 1921)
  12. ^ 1867 US House of Representatives report on the legitimacy of Callaway County war-era elections.
  13. ^ Bell, Ovid. "A Short History of Callaway County" (Fulton, MO: Ovid Bell Press, 1875)
  14. ^ Lynching in America/ Supplement: Lynchings by County, 3rd edition, Montgomery, Alabama: Equal Justice Initiative, 2015, p. 7
  15. ^ "Lynching in Missouri", Saline County, Missouri/MOGenWeb Project, 1996-2018; accessed 12 April 2018
  16. ^ "Chicago Tribune 2018 article on Missouri's Rhineland". Chicago Tribune 2018 article on Missouri's Rhineland.
  17. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  18. ^ Jefferson City NW, MO, 7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle, USGS, 1962 (1982 rev.)
  19. ^ Jefferson City, MO, 7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle, USGS, 1967 (1986 rev.)
  20. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  21. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  22. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  23. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  24. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  25. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 11 September 2013. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
  26. ^ Breeding, Marshall. "Callaway County Public Library". Libraries.org. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  27. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2018-03-24.

Further reading

  • Bell, Ovid. "A Short History of Callaway County" (Fulton, MO: Ovid Bell Press, 1875).
  • Bryan, William Smith. "A History of Pioneer Families in Missouri" (St Louis, MO: Bryan, Brand & Co, 1876).
  • Kingdom of Callaway Historical Society. A History of Callaway County Missouri (Fulton, MO: Kingdom of Callaway Historical Society, 1983).
  • Kingdom of Callaway Historical Society. Combined Atlases of Callaway County Missouri 1876-1897-1919, Indexed. (Mount Vernon, IN: Windmill Publications, Inc, 1994).
  • Mather, Otis. "Six Generations of LaRues and Allied Families". (Hodgenville & Louisville, KY: C T Dearing Printing Co, 1921).
  • Missouri State Library. "History of Callaway County." (St Louis, MO: National Historical Company, 1884).
  • Saeger, Andrew M. "The Kingdom Of Callaway: Callaway County, Missouri during the Civil War." (MA thesis, Northwest Missouri State University, 2013). bibliography pp 75–81 online
  • Smith, Harriet E. "Autobiography of Mark Twain" (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2010).
  • Williams, Walter, ed. "A History of Northeast Missouri" (Chicago, IL: Lewis Publishing Company, 1913).

External links



CALLAWAY COUNTY MISSOURI Latitude and Longitude:

38°50′N 91°55′W / 38.84°N 91.92°W / 38.84; -91.92