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Andover's Town Hall, located in downtown Andover
"Home of America" 
ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS Latitude and Longitude:
|• Type||Open town meeting|
|• Town Manager||Andrew P. Flanagan |
| • Board of |
|Alex Vispoli, Chairman|
Laura Gregory, Vice Chairman
Chris Huntress, Secretary
|• Total||32.1 sq mi (83.2 km2)|
|• Land||31.0 sq mi (80.3 km2)|
|• Water||1.1 sq mi (2.9 km2)|
|Elevation||180 ft (55 m)|
|• Density||1,007.8/sq mi (389.1/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 ( Eastern)|
|• Summer ( DST)||UTC-4 ( Eastern)|
|Area code(s)||351 / 978|
|GNIS feature ID||0619444|
|Website||The Official Website of Andover, Massachusetts|
Andover is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. It was settled in 1642 and incorporated in 1646.  As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,201.  It is part of the Boston- Cambridge- Quincy, Massachusetts- New Hampshire metropolitan statistical area. Part of the town comprises the census-designated place of Andover. It is twinned with its namesake: Andover, Hampshire, England.  
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Transportation
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government
- 6 Public safety
- 7 Arts and culture
- 8 Education
- 9 Notable people
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Sources
- 14 External links
In 1642, the Massachusetts General Court set aside a portion of land in what is now Essex County for an inland plantation, including parts of what is now Andover, North Andover and South Lawrence. In order to encourage settlement, early colonists were offered three years' immunity from taxes, levies, and services (except military service). The first permanent settlement in the Andover area was established in 1642 by John Woodbridge and a group of settlers from Newbury and Ipswich.
Shortly after they arrived, they purchased a piece of land from the local Pennacook tribal chief Cutshamache for "six pounds of currency and a coat" and on the condition that Roger, a local Pennacook man, would be allowed to plant his corn and take alewives from a local water source. Roger's Brook, a small stream which cuts through the eastern part of town, is named in his honor. In May 1646 the settlement was incorporated as a town and was named Andover. This name was likely chosen in honor of the town of Andover in England, which was near the original home of some of the first residents. The first recorded town meeting was held in 1656 in the home of settler John Osgood in what is now North Andover.
The old burying ground in what is now North Andover marks the center of the early town. Contrary to popular belief, the towns split due to the location of the Old North Church, also located in what is now North Andover. The villagers from the southwestern part of the town were tired of walking all the way to the extreme north of what was then Andover and decided to build their own South Church central to what is now Andover. Early on the general populace was concentrated together around the Old Center (North Andover) for protection from feared Indian attacks, but the Indians were fairly peaceful until the outbreak of King Philip's War. King Philip Six Indian raids occurred between 1676 and with the last in 1698 led by Chief Escumbuit.[ citation needed]
During the 1692 Salem witch trials, Andover resident Joseph Ballard asked for help for his wife from several girls in the neighboring Salem Village who were already identifying witches there. After visiting Elizabeth Ballard, the girls claimed that several people in Andover had bewitched her: Ann Foster, her daughter Mary Lacey Sr. and her granddaughter  Mary Lacey Jr. During the course of the legal proceedings, more than 40 Andover citizens, mostly women and their children, were formally accused of having made a covenant with the Devil. Three Andover residents, Martha Carrier, Mary Parker, and Samuel Wardwell, were convicted and executed. Five others either pleaded guilty at arraignment or were convicted at trial: Ann Foster, Mary Lacey Sr., and Abigail Faulkner Sr. (daughter of Andover's minister, Francis Dane) in 1692 and Wardwell's wife Sarah and Rev. Dane's granddaughter, Elizabeth Johnson Jr. in 1693. Those who were not executed were granted reprieves by Gov. William Phips,[ when?] but the convictions remained on their records. In 1713, in response to petitions initiated in 1703 by Abigail Faulkner Sr. and Sarah Wardwell, Massachusetts Governor Joseph Dudley reversed the attainder on the names of those who were convicted in the episode.
By 1705, Andover's population had begun to move southward and the idea of a new meeting house in the south end of town was proposed. This was strongly opposed by the people living near the original meeting house in the north, but the dispute was finally settled in 1709 when the Great and General Court divided Andover into two parishes, North and South. After the division of the two parishes, South Andover established the South Church and South Parish "Burying-Yard," as it was called, with early Andover settler Robert Russell the first to be interred at age 80 in December 1710.  But despite this split, the town remained politically one unit.
For many years Andover was geographically one of the largest towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; in 1826 a third parish was established and West Parish Church was constructed on Reservation Road. In 1854, a measure was passed to divide the town into two separate political units according to the old parish boundaries. The name Andover was assumed by the West and South parishes, while the name North Andover was given to the North Parish. How those names were decided upon is still debated to this day, from the reasons being money being paid to one town to keep the name, to there being a controversy over a fire truck affecting the name change.
Records show that on the morning of April 19, 1775, approximately 350 Andover men marched toward Lexington. Although they did not arrive in time for the battle that day, they did go on to participate in the battle of Bunker Hill two months later and fought in subsequent skirmishes with the Redcoats during the war.
Among the Andover men who were representatives to the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779–1780 were Colonel Samuel Osgood, Zebadiah Abbot, John Farnum and Samuel Phillips Jr.. Phillips – who would later go on to found Phillips Academy – was later appointed by John Adams to help draft the Massachusetts state constitution.
During the burning of Charlestown (June 17, 1775) Andover townspeople hiked to the top of Holt Hill to witness it.  Holt Hill is the highest point in Essex County at 420 ft (130 m) and is currently part of the Charles W. Ward Reservation. 
In November 1798, David Brown led a group in Dedham, Massachusetts in setting up a liberty pole with the words, "No Stamp Act, No Sedition Act, No Alien Bills, No Land Tax, downfall to the Tyrants of America; peace and retirement to the President; Love Live the Vice President," referring to then-President John Adams and Vice President Thomas Jefferson. Brown was arrested in Andover, Massachusetts but because he could not afford the $4,000 bail, he was taken to Salem for trial. Brown was tried in June 1799. Brown wanted to plead guilty but Justice Samuel Chase wanted him to name everybody who had helped him or who subscribed to his writings. Brown refused, was fined $480, and sentenced to eighteen months in prison, the most severe sentence then imposed under the Alien and Sedition Acts. 
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On January 6, 1853, Benjamin "Bennie" Pierce, the 11-year-old son of President-elect Franklin Pierce was killed in a train accident in town. The Boston & Maine noon express, traveling from Boston to Lawrence, was moving at 40 miles per hour when an axle broke. The only coach, in which Franklin Pierce was also riding, went down an embankment and broke in two. (The baggage car and locomotive remained on the track.) Pierce's son Benjamin was the only passenger killed, but it was initially reported that Franklin Pierce was also a fatality. 
The anti-slavery movement had many supporters in Andover long before the American Civil War began. William Jenkins - an ardent abolitionist and friend of William Lloyd Garrison - and several others provided stops on the Underground Railroad for runaway slaves. Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, was a longtime resident. Her home, known as Stowe House, is now owned by Phillips Academy. Her body is buried in Phillips Academy's cemetery. When the Confederate Army shelled Fort Sumter in 1861, a company of 79 volunteers formed. By the time the war ended in 1865, 600 Andover men had served in the Union Army.
In 1919, the American Woolen Company announced plans to build a million dollar mill in the already-existing mill community of Frye Village and rename the region "Shawsheen." The village was completely rebuilt as a "model industrial community" and became the site of the company's headquarters. The mill began operating in 1922 and within two years the village contained more than 200 houses, several community buildings, a few tennis courts, a swimming area, a bowling green, an athletic field and a golf course. The employees rented their homes from the company; the brick structures were reserved for upper management and the wooden buildings for those of lesser position. This industrial utopia, however, was short-lived - by the early 1940s almost all of the houses and administration buildings were in private hands. The mills became a victim of changing technology as synthetic fibers became more popular than wool. The American Woolen Company closed its mills in 1953, and the buildings today house a variety of businesses, homes, and apartments. The village left its mark nationally, however, when its soccer team, the Shawsheen Indians won the national soccer championship in 1925.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 32.1 square miles (83.2 km2), of which 31.0 square miles (80.3 km2) is land and 1.1 square miles (2.9 km2) (3.49%) is water. Significant water areas include the Shawsheen River, Fosters Pond, Pomps Pond, and Haggetts Pond, located in west Andover, which serves as the town's reservoir. Haggetts Pond was originally set apart from other waters, but since the late 1990s has had waters added from the Merrimack River, which constitutes half of the town's northern border, to supplement the growing needs of the town. Andover is also home to the Harold Parker State Forest, the Trustees of Reservations' Charles W. Ward Reservation, as well as a very small portion of Lawrence's Den Rock Park. The town's Conservation Commission and privately non-profit A.V.I.S. (Andover Village Improvement Society) together own around 3000 acres in the town. Other notable reservations in the town include the Harold R. Rafton Reservation and the Deer Jump Reservation (along the banks of the Merrimack). The town is home to many glacial features including drumlins, eskers, and glacial erratics.
Andover's town center is located approximately four miles south of the center of Lawrence, and is 22 miles (35 km) north of Boston and 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Manchester, New Hampshire. Andover contains the westernmost point of Essex County, along the Merrimack River. It is bordered by Lawrence to the north, North Andover to the northeast, North Reading and Wilmington to the south, Tewksbury to the southwest. Andover also borders Dracut to the northeast; however, the boundary is within the Merrimack River, and as there are no crossings of the Merrimack within the boundaries of Dracut, one must go through Methuen or nearby Lowell to enter Dracut, as is the case with Dracut's border with Tewksbury.
Andover is the location of the intersection of Interstate 93 and Interstate 495. The town is also served by Route 28, which serves as the main road from north to south through town, as well as Route 133 and Route 125.
Andover has two stops, Ballardvale and Andover along the Haverhill/Reading Line of the MBTA Commuter Rail, providing rail service from Haverhill to Boston's North Station. Andover Station is also near the Third Railroad Station, a former Boston and Maine Railroad station which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The nearest small plane service is at Lawrence Municipal Airport in North Andover, and national service can be found at both Logan International Airport and Manchester–Boston Regional Airport, both within thirty miles of the town. Several routes of the Merrimack Valley Regional Transit Authority also enter the town, mostly in the north end of town. These include both service to Lawrence as well as a weekday commuter bus to Boston.
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.          1790–1840  [a]
As of the census of 2000, there were 31,247 people, 11,305 households, and 8,490 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,007.8 people per square mile (389.1/km2). There were 11,590 housing units at an average density of 144.3 persons/km2 (373.8 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 91.60% White, 0.75% African American, 0.06% Native American, 5.73% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, and 0.99% from two or more races. 1.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 11,305 households out of which 40.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.6% were married couples living together, 7.5% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 24.9% were non-families. 21.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.24.
In the town, the population was spread out with 28.8% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.
According to a 2012 estimate,  the median income for a household in the town was $118,324, the median family income was $144,685. Males with full-time year-round jobs had a median income higher than $100,000; for females, the median was $62,532. The per capita income for the town was $53,378. 2.6% of families and 4.2% of the population, including 3.7% of people aged under 18 years and 5.8% of people aged 65 and over, were below the poverty line.
Andover had 217 residents who filed as making at least $1 million in 2011, accounting for one millionaire per every 157 people.  The average income for millionaires in Andover was $2,441,000.  Using income and other demographic data, Andover ranked 37 out of 490 in a ranking of wealthiest zipcodes in Massachusetts. 
|Clerk of Courts:|
|District Attorney:||Jonathan W. Blodgett(D) Eastern District|
|Register of Deeds:||M. Paul Iannuccillo(D) Northern Essex|
|Register of Probate:|
|County Sheriff:||Frank G. Cousins, Jr.(R)|
|State Representative(s):||Tram Nguyen (D) 18th Essex|
Frank A. Moran(D) 17th Essex
|State Senator(s):||Barry Finegold(D) Second Essex & Middlesex|
|Governor's Councilor(s):||Eileen R. Duff 5th District|
|U.S. Representative(s):||Niki Tsongas(D) 3rd District|
Seth W. Moulton(D) 6th District
|U.S. Senators:||Elizabeth Warren (D), Ed Markey (D)|
The current town manager of Andover is Andrew P Flanagan.
The Andover Police Department provides full-time general law enforcement for the town. The town is also served by Troop A of the Massachusetts State Police, operating out of the Andover barracks (A-1).
Andover Fire-Rescue provides full-time fire and emergency medical services for Andover. The department has three full-time stations and maintains 4 engines, 2 ladder trucks, 4 ambulances, and 2 forest fire units, as well as miscellaneous vehicles. 
On September 13, 2018, several gas lines suffered leakage due to high pressure in the tubes of Columbia Gas of Massachusetts, a subsidiary of NiSource. As a result, several fires and explosions occurred, homes were evacuated. At the conclusion of this event, over 70 houses suffered from gas-related explosions in the Andover-Lawrence area. Dozens of people were injured and one 18 year old Lawrence resident was killed. 
- Phillips Academy, a prep school founded in 1778 with many famous alumni.
- The Addison Gallery of American Art on the Phillips Academy campus is open to the public.
- The Andover Inn, an inn on the Phillips Academy campus.
- The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Andover Campus service center, which for many years accepted tax forms from several neighboring states. With increasing rates of e-filing, that function was threatened with phase-out in 2009.  The federal employee's union, National Treasury Employees Union, in mid-2009 pushed for special consideration under the Troubled Asset Relief Program for employees threatened with losing jobs.  In late 2009, the U.S. General Services Administration received money through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 to fund the $85 million green modernization of the 1967 building complex. 
- Andover is the site of a large factory owned by Raytheon, the builder of the Patriot Missile.
- Chandler-Bigsby-Abbot House, built in 1673, is the oldest house in Andover.
- Andover is home to the second oldest land preservation society in the country, the Andover Village Improvement Society (AVIS), which controls over 1,100 acres (4.5 km2).
- Dundee Park, a historical mill district and current business park
- Lebanon maintains an honorary consulate on North Main Street, near the Lawrence line near the Andover train station.
- Elementary Schools (K-5)- Shawsheen (K-2), Bancroft, West Elementary, South, Sanborn, High Plain
- Middle Schools (6-8)- Doherty, West Middle, Wood Hill
- High Schools (9-12)- Andover High School
- Greater Lawrence Technical School, serves grades 9-12
- Saint Augustine's Catholic School, serves grades K-8
- The Pike School, serves grades Pre-K-8
- Phillips Academy, serves grades 9-12 (Post-Grad)
- Andover School of Montessori
- Abiel Abbot, (1770–1828), Massachusetts clergyman and author
- Benjamin Abbot, teacher at Phillips Academy
- Amos Abbott, United States Congressman from Massachusetts
- John Adams, teacher at Phillips Academy from 1810 through 1832
- Ed Anuff, entrepreneur and author
- Harriette Newell Woods Baker, author, over 200 short stories
- Anne Bradstreet, 17th-century poet
- Lorraine Broderick, Emmy-award winning writer
- Bill Buckner, former Red Sox player
- Steven T. Byington, American individualist anarchist
- Sumner Carruth, Civil War officer
- Mike Mullen, United States Navy Admiral
- Michael Casey, poet
- Michael Chiklis, actor, The Shield
- Andrew Coburn, author
- Bill Cunliffe, Grammy Award winning composer, arranger, jazz pianist
- Annalisa Drew, freestyle skier and Olympic athlete at the 2014 and 2018 Winter Olympics
- Barry Finegold, member of the Mass. House of Representatives (served 1996–2007)
- Dudley Fitts, educator, critic, poet and translator
- Abiel Foster, clergyman and United States Congressman from New Hampshire
- Joseph Frye, brigadier general in the Continental Army
- Bill Belichick, New England Patriots head coach and general manager
- Ryan Hanigan, current Colorado Rockies catcher
- Kara Hayward, teen actress best known for the movie Moonrise Kingdom
- Jeremiah Ingalls, early American folk composer
- Martin Johnson, lead vocalist and guitarist for band Boys Like Girls
- Priscilla Lane, actress, Arsenic and Old Lace
- Jonathan Leavitt, founder, early New York City publishing house
- Jay Leno, entertainer, The Tonight Show
- Jim Loscutoff, former Boston Celtics player
- Paul Monette, prize-winning author
- Mary McGarry Morris, prize-winning author
- Marcus Morton (jurist), Chief Justice(1882–1890) of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
- Samuel Osgood, United States Postmaster General under President George Washington
- Betty Ong, American Airlines Flight 11 flight attendant killed on September 11, 2001
- Samuel Phillips (1690–1771), first pastor of the South Church in Andover. 
- Salem Poor, freed slave of Andover and Revolutionary War soldier
- Jenny Powers, actress on Broadway
- Jim Rice, former left fielder for the Boston Red Sox
- Blanchard Ryan, actress, Open Water
- Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward, nineteenth-century author
- Jon B. Higgins, Carnatic and Jazz musician
- Samuel Francis Smith, wrote America while a student at Andover Theological Seminary
- Harriet Beecher Stowe, buried in Andover
- George L. Street, III, World War II Medal of Honor recipient
- Dan Sullivan, former NFL lineman
- Susan Tucker, recent member of the Mass. House of Representatives the Mass. Senate
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Andover, Massachusetts.|
- Ballardvale, Massachusetts
- List of municipalities in Massachusetts
- Feaster Five Road Race, an annual Thanksgiving race in Andover
- Andover, Kansas
- Andover, Hampshire, a town in England
- Population up to 1850 included present-day North Andover, incorporated in 1855.
- "The Official Website of Andover, Massachusetts". The Official Website of Andover, Massachusetts. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
- Terry Date. "New town manager sworn in". The Andover Townsman.
- "Andover" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 387.
- "Demographics of Andover U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Profile" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-30.
- "Andover, Hampshire, England twinning". Andover MA Town Council. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- "Andover Town Twinning". Andover Town Twinning Association. Archived from the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- "Joseph Ballard Sr. & Elizabeth Phelps, and the Lacey Family/Salem Witch Trials". Family Search. Retrieved 2017-06-24.
- Bailey 1880, p. 512.
- Bailey, Sarah Loring (1880). "Memorials of the Early Settlers". Historical Sketches of Andover, Comprising the Present Towns of North Andover and Andover. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 95–6. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- Trustees of Reservations. "Ward Reservation". The Trustees. Trustees of Reservations. Archived from the original on 26 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
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Curtis, Michael Kent (2000). Free speech, "the people's darling privilege": struggles for freedom of expression in American history. Duke University Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-8223-2529-1.
Simon, James F. (2003). What Kind of Nation: Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, and the Epic Struggle to Create a United States. Simon and Schuster. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-684-84871-6.
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- "Total Population (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010.
- "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1950 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1920 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1890 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1870 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1860 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1850 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Tracy, Cyrus Mason (1878). Standard History of Essex County, Massachusetts. Boston: C. F. Jewett & Company. p. 67. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- "American FactFinder – Community Facts". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2014-12-10. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
- "How Many Millionaires Live in Andover?". 31 December 2014.
- "Mass Fire Trucks".
- BBC: Gas-related explosions set fire to homes near Boston, 14 September 2018
- Messenger, Brian (February 20, 2009). "Kerry, Tsongas say keep IRS center in Andover open: Local lawmakers want layoffs put off until 2012". Eagle-Tribune. Retrieved 11 October 2012..
- "NTEU attempts to save jobs for 1,500 IRS employees". accountingweb. May 14, 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2012..
- "GSA and Columbia Construction progressing with IRS' Andover Campus modernization". New England Real Estate Journal. December 24, 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2012..
- Mooar, George (1859). Historical Manual of the South Church in Andover, Mass. Andover, Massachusetts: Warren F. Draper. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- Farnum, John, Moses Abbott. 1795 Map of Andover.
- Dorman, Moses. 1830 Map of Andover.
- "Andover". Essex-County History and Directory. Boston: C.A. & J.F. Wood. 1870.
- Beers, D.G. 1872 Atlas of Essex County 1872 Map of Andover. Plate 51. Andover Center. Plate 53. Lawrence South Side. Plate 48.
- Bailey, Sarah Loring (1880). Historical Sketches of Andover (Comprising the Present Towns of North Andover and Andover) Massachusetts. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company.
- Walker, George H. 1884 Atlas of Essex County, Massachusetts Map of Andover. Plate 110-111. Frye Village and Ballardville, Andover. Plate 112. Dove Residence Andover. Plate 107. Phillips Academy. Plate 113.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Andover, Massachusetts.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Andover, Massachusetts.|
- Addison Gallery of American Art
- Andover Historical Society
- Vital Records of Andover, Massachusetts to 1850 (which includes North Andover).
- Andover, Massachusetts: Proceedings at the Celebration of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Incorporation of the Town, May 20, 1896 at books.google.