Agosta-class submarine Article

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OuessantBrest2005.jpg
French Agosta-70 submarine Ouessant at Brest in 2005
Class overview
Operators:
Preceded by: Daphné class
Succeeded by:
Subclasses: Agosta 90B
In commission: 1977 – Active in service in Spain and Pakistan
General characteristics
Displacement:
  • 1,500 long tons (1,524 t) surfaced
  • 1,760 long tons (1,788 t) submerged (France, Spain)
  • 2,050 long tons (2,083 t) submerged (Pakistan)
Length:
  • 67 m (219 ft 10 in) (France, Spain)
  • 76 m (249 ft 4 in) (Pakistan)
Beam: 6 m (19 ft 8 in)
Speed:
  • 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph) surfaced
  • 20.5 knots (38.0 km/h; 23.6 mph) submerged
  • 10.5 knots (19.4 km/h; 12.1 mph) submerged ( snort)
Range: 8,500 miles (13,679 km)
Test depth:
  • 300 m (980 ft) (France, Spain)
  • 350 m (1,150 ft) (Pakistan)
Complement:
  • 5 officers
  • 36 men
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • Thomson CSF DRUA 33 Radar
  • Thomson Sintra DSUV 22
  • DUUA 2D Sonar
  • DUUA 1D Sonar
  • DUUX 2 Sonar
  • DSUV 62A towed array
Armament:

The Agosta-class submarine is a class of diesel-electric fast-attack submarine developed and constructed by the French DCNS in 1970s to succeed the Daphné submarines. The submarines have served in the French Navy as well as exported to the navies of Spain and Pakistan. They are currently in the active service with the navies of Spain and Pakistan, and were replaced by the Scorpène class submarines in the French Navy. The French Navy grouped this model of submarine in their most capable class as an océanique, meaning "ocean-going." [1]

Ships

French Navy

built by Arsenal de Cherbourg

  • Agosta (S 620) – completed 1977 – decommissioned 1997
  • Bévéziers (S 621) – completed 1977 – decommissioned 1998
  • La Praya (S 622) – completed 1978 – decommissioned 2000
  • Ouessant (S 623) – completed 1978 – decommissioned 2001

Spanish Navy

built by Cartagena dockyard

  • Galerna (S 71) – completed 1983 – in service
  • Siroco (S 72) – completed 1983 – decommissioned 2012
  • Mistral (S 73) – completed 1985 – in service
  • Tramontana (S 74) – completed 1985 – in service

Pakistan Navy

The Pakistan Agosta boats were originally built for the South African Navy but were never delivered due to a UN arms embargo. [2] In 1992 negotiation began to acquire Agosta 90B-class submarines, this ended badly, see the Karachi Affair.

On 10 September 1974, South Africa announced to expand its submarine arm by entering in defence talks with France to acquire the Agosta-70-class submarines.:113 [3] South African Prime Minister P. W. Botha engaged in discussion with acquiring two Agosta-70-class submarines with French President Valéry d'Estaing, and had Capt. L. J. Woodburne as the project-manager of acquisition of Agosta-70 program in South African Navy. [4] Dubigeon-Normandie, the French contractor, built two Agosta-70 class submarine. [5] However, France denied to order of delivery to South African Navy following the implementation of Resolution 418 (an arms embargo) by the United Nations. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

In 1983-85, the class of submarines were deployed in Arabian sea during and prevented the Indian actions in seaborne theatre. As part of the cold war operation, they were deployed in Arabian sea and later embarked on being deployed on long-range mission to test depth and submerged endurance in Indian ocean. [11] [2]

Variants

The Agosta–90B class submarines is an improved version with modern systems, better battery with longer endurance, deeper diving capability, lower acoustic cavitation and better automatic control (reducing crew from 54 to 36). It can be equipped with the MESMA air-independent propulsion (AIP) system. [12] It is capable of carrying a combined load up to 16 torpedoes, SM39 Exocet, and seaborne nuclear cruise missiles. [13]

The submarines were built through the technology transfer by France to Pakistan that resulted in complicated and lengthy negotiations between the Benazir Bhutto government and the Mitterrand administration in 1992, and signed with the Chirac administration in 1992. [14] The Agosta–90Bs were chosen over the British Upholder/Victoria-class and the project was initially aimed at $520 million [15] but the programme of technology transfer costed $950 million, for which France first provided loans that were paid in five to six years. [16] [15] In 2000, France gave Pakistan the licence to offer commercial production of the submarines to potential customers. [17] [18]

The SM39 was test-fired from a Khalid-class submarine in 2001. [19]

See also

References

  1. ^ Shabbir, Usman. "Agosta 90B «  PakDef Military Consortium". pakdef.org. «  PakDef Military Consortium. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  2. ^ a b Waters, Conrad (2011). Seaforth World Naval Review 2012. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN  9781783830985. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  3. ^ Toit, Allan Du (1992). South Africaʼs Fighting Ships: Past and Present. Ashanti Pub. Pty Limited. p. 359. ISBN  9781874800507. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  4. ^ Alexander, E. G. McGill; Barron, Gary K. B.; Bateman, Anthony J. (1986). South African orders, decorations, and medals (snippet view). Human & Rousseau. p. 160. ISBN  9780798118958. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  5. ^ Shabbir, Usman (June 2003). "AGOSTA 70A". pakdef.org. Islamabad: «  PakDef Military Consortium. Archived from the original (html) on 2017-02-16. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  6. ^ Maguire, Keith (1991). Politics in South Africa: From Vorster to de Klerk (snippet view). Chambers. p. 151. ISBN  9780550207524. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  7. ^ "Victor Moukambi dissertation.doc" (PDF). University of Stellenbosch. 2008-10-13. Retrieved 2009-02-27.[ permanent dead link]
  8. ^ Andre Wessels (20 April 2007). "The South African Navy During The Years of Conflict In Southern Africa, 1966-1989". . Sabinet Online Ltd. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2008.
  9. ^ NTI, Nuclear Threat Initiatives staffer. "Pakistan Submarine Capabilities". www.nti.org. Nuclear Threat Initiatives. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  10. ^ Goldrick, James (1995). No Easy Answers: The Development of the Navies of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, 1945-1996. Sydney, au: Lancer Publishers. ISBN  9781897829028. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  11. ^ Rikhye, Ravi (1985). The Fourth Round: Indo-Pak War 1984. ABC Publishing House. p. 253. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  12. ^ "SSK Agosta 90B Class Submarine - Naval Technology". Naval Technology. Retrieved 2017-10-30.
  13. ^ "SSK Agosta 90B Class Submarine, France". naval-technology.com. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  14. ^ Anwar, Dr Muhammad. Friends Near Home: Pakistan's Strategic Security Options. AuthorHouse. ISBN  9781467015417. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  15. ^ a b Staff writer, et.al (5 December 2010). "Agosta submarine deal - Benazir, Zardari not involved: ex-naval spy chief - The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune (4/5). Islamabad: The Express Tribune, Islamabad. The Express Tribune. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  16. ^ Siddiqa-Agha, A. (2001). "§Arms Procurement for the Navy". Pakistan's Arms Procurement and Military Buildup, 1979-99: In Search of a Policy (google books). New York, [us]: Springer. p. 230. ISBN  9780230513525. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  17. ^ Osman, Ali (19 October 2015). "Pakistan's tool of war: Agosta 90B, our submarine in the deep". DAWN.COM. Dawn newspapers, Osman. Dawn newspapers. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  18. ^ "Agosta launched; ship deal on cards". DAWN.COM. 25 August 2002. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  19. ^ "Pakistan Navy Test-fires Two Missiles". People's Daily. 11 March 2001. Retrieved 19 May 2015.

External links