List of demonyms for U.S. states and territories Article

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This is a list of official and notable unofficial terms used to designate the citizens of specific states and territories of the United States.


State, district or territory Official
(recommended by U.S. GPO) [1]
Official, unofficial, or informal alternatives
  Alabama Alabamian Alabaman [2] [3]
  Alaska Alaskan
  American Samoa American Samoan
  Arizona Arizonan Sand Cutter [4]
  Arkansas Arkansan Arkansawyer, [5] Arkie [6]
  California Californian Californio (archaic)
  Colorado Coloradan Coloradoan (archaic) [7] [8]
  Connecticut Connecticuter Connecticotian, [9] Connecticutensian, [9] Nutmeg, [9] Nutmegger [9]
  Delaware Delawarean Blue Hen's Chicken, [10] Muskrat [10]
  District of Columbia Washingtonian
  Florida Floridian Alligator, [11] Cracker, [12] Fly-Up-the-Creek [11]
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia Georgian Buzzard, Cracker, Goober-grabber [13]
  Guam Guamanian
  Hawaii Hawaiian Islander, [14] Kama'aina. The Associated Press Stylebook restricts use of "Hawaiian" to people of Native Hawaiian descent. [15]
  Idaho Idahoan Fortune Seekers [16]
  Illinois Illinoisan Illinoisian, Illinoian, Flatlander, [17] Sucker, Sand-hiller, Egyptian [18]
  Indiana Hoosier Indianan (former GPO demonym replaced by Hoosier in 2016) [1]
  Iowa Iowan Hawkeye [19]
  Kansas Kansan Sunflower, Jayhawker, Grasshopper [20]
  Kentucky Kentuckian Corncracker [21]
  Louisiana Louisianian
  Maine Mainer Down Easter or Downeaster, [22] Mainiac, [23]
  Maryland Marylander
  Massachusetts Massachusettsan Bay Stater (official term used by state government), [24] Massachusettsian, [25] Massachusite, [26] [27] Masshole (derogatory [28] as an exonym; however, it can be affectionate when applied as an endonym [29])
  Michigan Michigander Michigander, [30] Wolverine, [31] [32] Michiganite, Yooper/ Troll (for residents of the Upper Peninsula and Lower Peninsula, respectively), [33] Michigoose (used specifically for female residents, as a play on "Michi gander") [33]
  Minnesota Minnesotan Gopher
  Mississippi Mississippian
  Missouri Missourian
  Montana Montanan
  Nebraska Nebraskan Bugeaters or Cornhuskers [34]
  Nevada Nevadan
  New Hampshire New Hampshirite New Hampshireman or New Hampshirewoman [35]
  New Jersey New Jerseyan Jerseyite, New Jerseyite
  New Mexico New Mexican Spanish: Neomexicano, Neomejicano [36]
New York (state) New York New Yorker Knickerbocker [37] [38]
  North Carolina North Carolinian Tar Heel, Tar Boiler, [39]
   North Dakota North Dakotan
  Northern Mariana Islands Mariana Islander
  Ohio Ohioan Buckeye, [40] Ohian (obsolete) [41]
  Oklahoma Oklahoman Okie, [42] Sooner [43]
  Oregon Oregonian
  Pennsylvania Pennsylvanian Pennamite, [44] Keystoner
  Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Boricua [45]
  Rhode Island Rhode Islander Rhodean, Swamp Yankee [46]
  South Carolina South Carolinian Sandlapper [47]
  South Dakota South Dakotan
  Tennessee Tennessean Volunteer, Big Bender, Butternut [48]
  Texas Texan Texian (Anglo-Texan - historical), [49] Tejano (Hispano-Texan), Texican (archaic)
  Utah Utahn Utahan
  Vermont Vermonter
  Virginia Virginian
United States Virgin Islands Virgin Islands Virgin Islander
Washington (state) Washington Washingtonian
  West Virginia West Virginian
  Wisconsin Wisconsinite Badger, [50] Cheesehead [51] [52]
  Wyoming Wyomingite Wyomese [53]

† - Not officially a U.S. state, rather a U.S. territory or district.

See also


  1. ^ a b U.S. Government Publishing Office Style Manual. 2016. §5.23.
  2. ^ Safire, William (June 26, 1994). "On Language: Foam Fell on Alabama". The New York Times. Safire reports that after he used the word "Alabaman" in a column, he received a letter from Vic Gold that said in part, "The natives, I have learned to my sorrow, prefer Alabamian."
  3. ^ "The State of Alabama". Netstate.
  4. ^ "The State of Arizona - An Introduction to the Grand Canyon State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  5. ^ Arkansawyer definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01.
  6. ^ "Ar•kie". Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  7. ^ Writers Style Guide. Colorado State University. p. 62,. Retrieved January 2, 2009. The correct name for a person from Colorado is Coloradan (not Coloradoan).
  8. ^ Quillen, Ed (March 18, 2007). "Coloradan or Coloradoan?". The Denver Post.
  9. ^ a b c d "The State of Connecticut - An Introduction to the Constitution State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  10. ^ a b "The State of Delaware - An Introduction to the First State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  11. ^ a b "The State of Florida". Netstate.
  12. ^ "'Cracker' Means Something Entirely Different In Florida: A Source Of 'Pride'". Mediaite. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  13. ^ "The State of Georgia". Netstate. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  14. ^ "The State of Hawaii - An Introduction to the Aloha State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  15. ^ Christian, Darrel; Jacobsen, Sally A.; Minthorn, David, eds. (2013). The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. New York, NY: Basic Books. p. 112. ISBN  9780465082995.
  16. ^ "The State of Idaho". Netstate.
  17. ^ Jim Fitzgerald (1987-10-06). "A Friend Escapes To Illinois . . . And Now Is A Flatlander!".
  18. ^ "The State of Illinois - An Introduction to the Prairie State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  19. ^ "The State of Iowa".
  20. ^ "The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  21. ^ Corncracker - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  22. ^ The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007. New York: World Almanac Books. 2006. ISBN  978-0-88687-995-2.
  23. ^ "Mainiac". Time. June 20, 1938. (term used in reference to Maine author Kenneth Roberts)
  24. ^ "Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth". The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2008-02-29.: "Bay Staters shall be the official designation of citizens of the commonwealth."
  25. ^
  26. ^ Collections. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. 1877. p. 435.
  27. ^ Jones, Thomas (1879). DeLancey, Edward Floyd, ed. History of New York During the Revolutionary War. New York: New York Historical Society. p. 465.
  28. ^ Nagy, Naomi; Irwin, Patricia (July 2010). "Boston (r): Neighbo(r)s nea(r) and fa(r)". Language Variation and Change. 22 (2): 270.
  29. ^ "'Masshole' among newest words added to Oxford English Dictionary". Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  30. ^ "The State of Michigan - An Introduction to the Great Lakes State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  31. ^ Marckwardt, Albert H. (1952). "Wolverine and Michigander". Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review. LVIII: 203–8.
  32. ^ Sperber, Hans (February 1954). "Words and Phrases in American Politics: Michigander". American Speech. 29 (1): 21–7. doi: 10.2307/453592.
  33. ^ a b "MDE - Michigan Glossary". 2008-01-30. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  34. ^ "Football Players to Eat Corn, Not Bugs". History Nebraska. Retrieved 2018-10-02.
  35. ^ "The State of New Hampshire - An Introduction to the Granite State from". Netstate.Com. 2009-04-13. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  36. ^ Neomexicano definition by Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española)
  37. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  38. ^ New York Knicks, What's a Knickerbocker?
  39. ^ Powell, William S. (March 1982). "What's in a Name?: Why We're All Called Tar Heels". Tar Heel. Tar Heel Magazine, Inc. OCLC  005457348. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
  40. ^ "The State of Ohio - An Introduction to the Buckeye State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  41. ^ Missing or empty |title= ( help)
  42. ^ Stewart, Roy P. (December 20, 1968). "Postal Card Proves Sooners Were 'Okies' Way Back In 1907". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 9, col. 2. Now comes Mrs. Agness Hooks of Thomas with a postal card mailed at Newcastle, Ind. in 1907, address to a Miss Agness Kirkbridge, with the salutation: 'Hello Okie — Will see you next Monday night.' Signed: Myrtle M. Pence. Mrs. Hooks says Agness Kirkbridge was an aunt of hers. The Kirkbridge family came to Oklahoma Territory in 1904 and settled south of Custer City.
  43. ^ "The State of Oklahoma - An Introduction to the Sooner State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  44. ^ "History of". Luzerne County. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  45. ^ "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico". Retrieved 2015-09-02.
  46. ^ "The Providence Journal | Rhode Island breaking news, sports, politics, business, entertainment, weather and traffic - - Providence Journal". 2012-07-17. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  47. ^
  48. ^ "The State of Tennessee - An Introduction to the Volunteer State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  49. ^ de la Teja, Jesus F. (1997). "The Colonization and Independence of Texas: A Tejano Perspective". In Rodriguez O., Jaime E.; Vincent, Kathryn. Myths, Misdeeds, and Misunderstandings: The Roots of Conflict in U.S.–Mexican Relations. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc. p. 79. ISBN  0-8420-2662-2.
  50. ^ "Do You Want to Be a Badger?". Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
  51. ^ Kapler, Joseph, Jr. (Spring 2002). On Wisconsin Icons: When You Say 'Wisconsin', What Do You Say?. Wisconsin Historical Society. pp. 18–31. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
  52. ^ Foamation: About Us. Foamation. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
  53. ^ "Chicago Daily Tribune". 1903-06-02. Archived from the original on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2017-03-09.

External links