1834 and 1835 United States House of Representatives elections Information

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1834 and 1835 U.S. House of Representatives elections

←  1832 / 1833 July 7, 1834 – November 5, 1835 [a] 1836 / 1837 →

All 242 [b] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
122 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg JohnBellSecretaryofWar.png
Leader James K. Polk John Bell
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Tennessee 9th Tennessee 7th
Last election 143 seats 63 seats
Seats won 148 80
Seat change Increase 5 Increase 17
Popular vote 802,422 704,229
Percentage 49.69% 43.61%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Nullifier Anti-Masonic
Last election 9 seats 25 seats
Seats won 8 [c] 5
Seat change Decrease 1 Decrease 20
Popular vote 19,151 50,330
Percentage 1.19% 3.12%

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 1 [d]
Seat change Increase 1
Popular vote 52,062
Percentage 3.22%

House024ElectionsMap.png

Speaker before election

John Bell
Jacksonian

Elected Speaker

James K. Polk
Jacksonian

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 24th Congress were held in 1834 and 1835 during Andrew Jackson's second term as President of the United States.

Jacksonians benefitted from the president's continued popularity and the tight party organization of the nascent Democratic Party to win a large majority of House seats for the new Congress. Their primary opponents, the Anti-Jacksonians, were coalescing and unifying as the Whig Party, reducing the influence of single-issue parties, the Anti-Masonic Party (an anti-Masonry movement) and the Nullifier Party (a John C. Calhoun-led states' rights party that supported South Carolina during the Nullification Crisis in 1832 and 1833). The Whig Party evolved from the National Republican Party and these minor parties. It appealed to diverse opponents of Jackson, including voters who perceived him as autocratic and brash, voters supporting greater spending and development on institutions and infrastructure, anti-Masons, and former Federalists. As the balance of power in the House remained unchanged, with Jacksonians holding 142 seats, this was the smallest loss by a President's party in the House as a result of the so-called six-year itch.

When the House convened in December 1835, future president James K. Polk, a staunch Jacksonian, was elected speaker. He defeated the incumbent speaker, John Bell, a Jacksonian who had split with the president on the national bank and other issues. Bell subsequently aligned himself with the Anti-Jacksonians in the 24th Congress.

Election summary

The Michigan was admitted during this Congress, adding 1 seat. [1]

75 16 8 142
Anti-Jacksonian Anti-Masonic [e] Jacksonian
State Type Date Total
seats
Jacksonian Anti-Jacksonian Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Delaware At-large November 11, 1834 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 6, 1834 9 9 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois Districts August 4, 1834 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana Districts July 7–9, 1834 3 1 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine Districts September 8, 1834 8 6 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts Districts November 10, 1834 12 1 Steady 8 Decrease1 3 Increase1 0 Steady
New Jersey At-large October 14, 1834 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York Districts November 3–5, 1834 40 31 Decrease1 9 Increase9 0 Decrease8 0 Steady
Ohio Districts October 14, 1834 19 9 Decrease2 9 Increase3 1 Decrease1 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts October 14, 1834 28 17 Increase3 3 Decrease1 8 Decrease2 0 Steady
South Carolina Districts October 13–14, 1834 9 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 7 Decrease1
Vermont Districts September 2, 1834 5 0 Steady 3 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
1835 elections
Alabama Districts August 3, 1835 5 3 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Connecticut At-large April 9, 1835 6 6 Increase6 0 Decrease6 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana Districts August 3, 1835 7 6 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts August 5, 1835 13 4 Steady 9 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland Districts October 5, 1835 8 4 Decrease2 4 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan [f] At-large October 5, 1835 1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large November 3–5, 1835 2 1 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri At-large August 3, 1835 2 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire At-large March 10, 1835 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina Districts August 13, 1835 13 6 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 25, 1835 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady
Tennessee Districts August 5–6, 1835 13 4 Decrease8 9 Increase8 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia Districts April 1835 21 16 Increase2 5 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total [b] 241 Increase1 142
58.9%
Steady 75
31.1%
Increase12 16
6.6%
Decrease9 8
3.3%
Decrease1
House seats
Anti-Jacksonian
31.1%
Anti-Masonic
6.6%
Jacksonian
58.9%
Nullifier
3.3%

Special elections

23rd Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 5 New member elected February 17, 1834.
Maryland 1 New member elected May 29, 1834.
Ohio 19 New member elected October 14, 1834.
Ohio 1 New member elected November 8, 1834.
Vermont 5 New member elected November 10, 1834.
Connecticut at-large
3 seats on a general ticket
William W. Ellsworth Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent resigned July 8, 1834.
New member elected in 1834 and seated December 1, 1834.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Successor later lost re-election, see below.
Jabez W. Huntington Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent resigned August 16, 1834 to become judge of the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors.
New member elected in 1834 and seated December 1, 1834.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Successor was not a candidate to the next term see below.
Samuel A. Foot Anti-Jacksonian 1833 Incumbent resigned May 9, 1834 to become Governor of Connecticut.
New member elected in 1834 and seated December 1, 1834.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Successor later lost re-election, see below.
Massachusetts 2 New member elected December 1, 1834.
South Carolina 8 New member elected December 8, 1834.

24th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates


Georgia at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
John W. A. Sanford Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent resigned July 25, 1835.
New member elected October 5, 1835 and seated December 7, 1835.
Jacksonian hold.
William Schley Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned July 1, 1835.
New member elected October 5, 1835 and seated December 7, 1835.
Jacksonian hold.
James M. Wayne Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent resigned January 13, 1835 to become Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
New member elected October 5, 1835 and seated December 7, 1835.
Jacksonian hold.
James C. Terrell Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent resigned July 8, 1835.
New member elected October 5, 1835 and seated December 7, 1835.
Jacksonian hold.
North Carolina 12 Vacant The House refused to seat either candidate after a disputed 1835 election.
New member elected August 1836.
Anti-Jacksonian gain. [3]

Michigan

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Michigan at-large New seat Michigan was admitted to the Union on January 26, 1837.
New member elected October 5, 1835. [4]
Jacksonian gain.
The house refused to admit the member due to a conflict with Ohio, so he was seated only as a non-voting delegate until January 27, 1837. [5]

North Carolina

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8
North Carolina 9
North Carolina 10
North Carolina 11
North Carolina 12 James Graham Anti-Jacksonian 1833 Election result was disputed.
House Committee on Elections awarded the election to the challenger, the full House voted to unseat the incumbent but then declined to seat the challenger, leaving the seat vacant.
Anti-Jacksonian loss. [6]
North Carolina 13

Pennsylvania

District Incumbent Party First elected Result Candidates [7] [g]
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Horace Binney Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
James Harper Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 3 John G. Watmough Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
William Hiester Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Edward Darlington Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
David Potts Jr. Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 5 Joel K. Mann Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Pennsylvania 6 Robert Ramsey Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 7 David D. Wagener Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 8 Henry King Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Pennsylvania 9 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 10 William Clark Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 11 Charles A. Barnitz Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 12 George Chambers Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 13 Jesse Miller Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Jesse Miller (Jacksonian) 51.4%
  • Thomas Whiteside (Anti-Masonic) 48.6%
Pennsylvania 14 Joseph Henderson Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 15 Andrew Beaumont Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 16 Joseph B. Anthony Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 17 John Laporte Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 18 George Burd Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 19 Richard Coulter Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Pennsylvania 20 Andrew Stewart Anti-Masonic 1820
1830
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 21 Thomas M. T. McKennan Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 22 Harmar Denny Anti-Masonic 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 23 Samuel S. Harrison Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 24 John Banks Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John Banks (Anti-Masonic) 52.2%
  • Samuel Power (Jacksonian) 47.8%
Pennsylvania 25 John Galbraith Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during the 24th Congress.
  2. ^ a b Includes late elections.
  3. ^ Seven were elected in South Carolina under "Southern Rights" label and one elected in North Carolina as a "States Rights Whig."
  4. ^ William Henry Ashley, of Missouri was elected as an Independent.
  5. ^ There were 8 Nullifiers.
  6. ^ New state
  7. ^ a b c For plural districts, percent is based on assumption that each voter cast as many votes as there are seats

References

  1. ^ Stat.  50
  2. ^ "Our Campaigns - GA At-Large - Special Election Race - Oct 05, 1835".
  3. ^ "Result of the Election". Western Carolinian. August 20, 1836. Retrieved May 29, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  4. ^ a b "MI - District 01". January 11, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  5. ^ "Twenty-Fourth Congress March 4, 1835, to March 3, 1837". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  6. ^ "N. Carolina Contested Election". The Weekly Standard. Raleigh, North Carolina. March 17, 1836. Retrieved May 29, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  7. ^ "Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project" (PDF).

Bibliography

External links