Draft:Royal and Venerable Confraternity of the Most Blessed Sacrament of Mafra

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  • Symbol opinion vote.svg Comment: Wikipedia criteria are not universal. Each language version operates according to its own policies and guidelines, set by the community of editors who contribute there. So an article may satisfy the rules for the Portuguese Wikipedia but not the English one, or vice versa. Worldbruce (talk) 13:09, 1 October 2019 (UTC)
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Coordinates: 38°56′13.8″N 9°19′31.9″W / 38.937167°N 9.325528°W / 38.937167; -9.325528

Royal and Venerable Confraternity of the Most Blessed Sacrament of Mafra
Real e Venerável Irmandade do Santíssimo Sacramento de Mafra
Emblema da RVISSM.jpg
Formation16th century
TypeCatholic public association
HeadquartersBasilica of the Royal Building of Mafra, Mafra, Portugal
Websitehttps://pt-pt.facebook.com/ISSMafra

The Royal and Venerable Confraternity of the Most Blessed Sacrament of Mafra (Portuguese: Real e Venerável Irmandade do Santíssimo Sacramento de Mafra), is a public association of faithful of the Catholic Church, canonically established in the Basilica of Our Lady and St. Anthony of the Royal Building of Mafra, in Portugal, inscribed on 7 July 2019 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[1]

The confraternity organizes the solemnity of Corpus Christi and the four traditional processions for the season of Lent in Mafra, namely: the procession of the Passion of the Lord (Procissão do Senhor Jesus dos Passos, in Portuguese); the procession of Penance of the Third Order of Saint Francis (Procissão de Penitência da Ordem Terceira de São Francisco, in Portuguese); the procession of the Seven Sorrows of Our Lady (Procissão das Sete Dores de Nossa Senhora, in Portuguese), and the procession of the Burial of the Lord (Procissão do Enterro do Senhor, in Portuguese).

The confraternity possesses an artistic, documental and cultural heritage of great importance and value. The shirt worn by Louis XV of France in his coronation ceremony in the cathedral of Reims is owned by this confraternity[2] [3]. The group of processional mannequin-style images owned by this confraternity is the largest collection of its kind in Portugal, some of those images are still in use today, by the confraternity, when required to intergrate religious functions, namely processions[4].

Part of the confraternity ceremonies and religious functions take place with sound of the basilica's six historical pipe organs and two monumental carillons, composed of 98 bells.

It is one of the oldest institutions in the municipality of Mafra[4].

History[edit]

The Royal Building of Mafra.

The creation of the Royal and Venerable Confraternity of the Most Blessed Sacrament of Mafra dates to the 16th century, at the Church of St. Andrew in Mafra[4].

The first documental reference to the Confraternity dates to 14 March 1597, in a testament of Jorge Rodrigues[4].

The oldest document of the Confraternity is the agreement of 5 June 1725[4].

The agreement of 5 June 1725.

A considerable number of captains, known as Capitães-Mores (High-Captains) of Mafra, like other important local townspeople and even figures of national importance were members of the Confraternity. Some of these notable figures include, Dom Tomás Xavier de Lima, 13th Viscount of Vila Nova de Cerveira and 1st Marquis of Ponte de Lima, Secretary of State (equivalent to a Prime Minister) of the Kingdom of Portugal from 1 April 1786 to 15 December 1788, as Capitão-Mor of Mafra, José Maximo de Carvalho, in which William Beckford describes in his diary of the opulence of when he was received[5] [4].

In 1835, after the extinction of the religious orders, the headquarters of the Confraternity moved to the Basilica of Our Lady and St. Anthony in Mafra, to the old hall of novices, by the invitation of Queen Maria II[4].

In 1866, the Confraternity received from the Civil Government the assets of the extinct Third Order of St. Francis at Mafra[6], and later also received the assets of the extinct Confraternity of the Lord Jesus of the Steps of Mafra (Irmandade do Senhor Jesus dos Passos de Mafra, in Portuguese)[7], assuming their heritage with the responsibility of ensuring their mission to organise processions that used to be held by the two confraternities – the Procession of Penance of the Third Order of St. Francis and the Procession of the Burial of the Lord, both of which were promoted by the first confraternity; and the Procession of the Passion of the Lord organized by the second confraternity, above mentioned[4].

The Confraternity was under the guardianship of the Kings of Portugal until the proclamation of the Republic, on 5 October 1910. The last King of Portugal, Manuel II, was an honorary and perpetual juiz (principal) of the Confraternity[4].

In 1953, after the return of the Procession of the Seven Sorrows of Our Lady, the Confraternity received the assets of the extinct Confraternity of Our Lady of Sorrows of Mafra (Irmandade de Nossa Senhora das Dores de Mafra, in Portuguese), with the responsibility of organizing this procession annually[8].

Traditional processions for the season of Lent in Mafra[edit]

Lord Jesus of the "Passos" of Mafra.

The processions of Lent in Mafra are the most unique group of processions in the country and the most original and relevant cultural manifestation of grandeur and prestige that Mafra achieved in the 18th century. These ceremonies still maintain the essential characteristics acquired in the Baroque period, improved by years of conservation and restorations[9].

During the period of construction of the Royal Building of Mafra, distinguished artists of the town wrote their names in the history of Portuguese art, which to this day endure in the rich heritage associated with its Sorrowful Processions which have been preserved by the Confraternity[9].

Procession of the Passion of the Lord[edit]

Our Lady of Solitude of Mafra.

It is one of the oldest expressions of piety in the town of Mafra, stemming from the old collegiate church of St. Andrew in Mafra, since the 17th century. It began on the second Sunday of Lent, which is also known as the Procession of Encounter - made up of two processions that would join at a determined moment of the route[7].

The Procession of the Passion of the Lord would exit from the basilica of the Royal Building of Mafra and of Our Lady of Solitude which would exit Campo Santo Chapel, also located in the Royal Building of Mafra[7].

To this day, the image of the Lord Jesus of the Passos (Lord Jesus of the Steps) leaves the Basilica, meeting with the image of Our Lady of Solitude, near the final part of the journey, ending with the homily of encounter, of both processions[7].

Procession of Penance of the Third Order of Saint Francis[edit]

This procession, which occurs on the fourth Sunday of Lent, is celebrated with the solemnity and grandeur of the Portuguese Baroque, being the only one to maintain unaltered the processional protocol established since the institution by Brother Matias da Conceição, Librarian of the Convent of Mafra[6].

The first procession occurred on 27 March 1740, being the religious feastivity that directly related to the grand work of King John V, which was the patron of the institution’s time[6].

Stigmatization of St. Francis in Mount La Verna.

The images of the 10 religious litters, alluding to the history of the Franciscans, were in their totality, executed by sculptor Manuel Dias, known as “The Father of Christs”. They are, in their majority, vested with the original vestments acquired during that time by João Pedro Ludovice, son of the architect of the Royal Building of Mafra, Johann Friedrich Ludwig, by order of King John V[6].

Part of the heritage of this procession is the shirt which King Louis XV of France wore at his coronation, which was donated to grace the image of St. Louis by the King John V, which today is not used in the processions[2] [3].

The most monumental of these sculptures represents Christ crucified, attributed to the genoese Anton Maria Maragliano and offered to the Third Order of Mafra by Domenico Massa, carpenter tasked with the installation of the carillons in the towers of the Basilica[10] [11].

Procession of the Seven Sorrows of Our Lady[edit]

Procession of the Burial of the Lord in Mafra.

The Confraternity of Our Lady of Sorrows, instituted in 1779, in the old collegiate church of St. Andrew in Mafra, promoted the first procession in the year of 1793[8].

This procession takes place on Palm Sunday, the Sunday before Friday of Sorrows in which celebrates the Feast of the Seven Sorrows of Our Lady[8].

The procession is composed of seven religious litters corresponding to the seven sorrows of the Mother of Jesus, and an eighth, with the image of Our Lady of Sorrows. In total there are more than fifty images that are attributed to the sculptor Joaquim José de Barros Laborão, one of the last masters from the School of Sculpture of Mafra, according to Armindo Ayres de Carvalho[8].

The popular name of this procession, known as the “Procession of the Little Donkey” (Procissão da Burrinha, in Portuguese), is originally depicted in the religious litter of the flight into Egypt, in which the Virgin is represented seated on a donkey[8].

The procession was suppressed in 1894 and returned in 1954[8].

Procession of the Burial of the Lord[edit]

The exact date when this procession started is unattributed. This procession takes place on the night of Good Friday. In 1773, the Third Order of St. Francis proceeded by the comissioning of a new image of Our Lady of Solitude, which to this day, is the same that is used in the streets of the town of Mafra[7].

This is one of the most solemn processions, since it represents the death of Our Lord Jesus Christ[7].

The funeral procession, in silence, is accompanied by Veronica’s and The Three Marys lamentations. This ancient tradition, in Mafra, is accompanied by the Centurion, a typical figure in mafra folk art, that is dressed in original vestments from the 18th century[7].

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Six cultural sites added to UNESCO's World Heritage List". UNESCO. 7 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b Saldanha Lopes, Luiz. A camisa da sagração de Luís XV e a Irmandade do Santíssimo Sacramento de Mafra/La Chemise du Sacre de Louis XV et la Confrérie du Très Saint Sacrement de Mafra (in Portuguese and French). 1.ª ed. Mafra: Irmandade do Santíssimo Sacramento de Mafra, 2016.
  3. ^ a b "La Chemise du Sacre de Louis XV". Le Forum de Marie-Antoinette (in French).
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Henriques, Tiago, "A Real e Venerável Irmandade do Santíssimo Sacramento da Paróquia de Santo André de Mafra – A Antiga e Nobre Colegiada de Santo André da Vila de Mafra e a Instituição da Irmandade do Santíssimo Sacramento", in Mafra Sacra : memória & património, 1717-2017 (...), p. 167-177.
  5. ^ Memoirs of William Beckford of Fonthill, author of Vathek p. 327-328.
  6. ^ a b c d Chaves, Duarte Nuno, "A Procissão de Penitência da Venerável Ordem Terceira e as Suas Imagens de Vestir – Memórias Franciscanas da Sacra e Real Basílica de Nossa Senhora e Santo António", in Mafra Sacra : memória & património, 1717-2017 (...), p. 305-325.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Costa, Alexandre, e Felgueiras, António, "Paixão e Morte do Senhor Jesus – Expressões de Piedade na Vila de Mafra", in Mafra Sacra : memória & património, 1717-2017 (...), p. 371-390.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Figueiredo, Padre Ricardo, "A Devoção às Sete Dores de Nossa Senhora: História, Piedade e Teologia", in Mafra Sacra : memória & património, 1717-2017 (...), p. 393-407.
  9. ^ a b "Procissões da Quaresma". Câmara Municipal de Mafra (in Portuguese). 2019-08-16. Retrieved 2019-08-16.
  10. ^ Saldanha, Sandra Costa - Um crucifixo de Anton Maria Maragliano em Mafra: oferta do genovês Domenico Massa à Ordem Terceira da Penitência, Invenire: Revista de Bens Culturais da Igreja, n.º 7, 2013.
  11. ^ Alessandrini, Nunziatella, Revelando Domenico Massa: Contributo para a História da Vivência de um Genovês no Estaleiro da Real Obra de Mafra e Devoto da Ordem Terceira da Penitência, in Mafra Sacra : memória & património, 1717-2017 (...), p. 327-335.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Beckford, William. Diário de William Beckford em Portugal e Espanha (in Portuguese). 3.ª ed. (reimp.). Lisboa: Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, 2009. ISBN 978-972-565-429-3.
  • Carvalho, A. Ayres. Obra Mafrense (in Portuguese). Mafra: Câmara Municipal de Mafra, 1992. ISBN 972-9181-17-9.
  • Galrão, Carlos. A pia baptismal da igreja de Santo André (in Portuguese). O Concelho de Mafra, n.º 372. Mafra: Tipografia Liberty.
  • Mafra Sacra : memória & património, 1717-2017 (in Portuguese). coord. Tiago Henriques. - 1ª ed. - Sintra : Zéfiro ; Mafra : Real e Venerável Irmandade do Santíssimo Sacramento da Paróquia de Santo André de Mafra, 2017. - 461, [3] p. : il. ; 30 cm. - (Mafra Sacra). ISBN 978-989-677-153-9.
  • Pereira, Fernando António Baptista. Do Gótico ao Maneirismo: A Arte na Região de Mafra na Época dos Descobrimentos (in Portuguese). Mafra: Câmara Municipal de Mafra, 2000.
  • Pimentel, António Filipe. Aquitectura e Poder — O Real Edifício de Mafra (in Portuguese). Lisboa: Livros Horizonte, 2002. ISBN 972-24-1172-1.
  • Prado, Frei João de S. José do. Monumento Sacro da Fabrica, E Solemnissima Sagração da Santa Basílica do Real Convento, Que Junto à Villa de Mafra Dedicou a N. Senhora, e Santo António a Magestade Augusta do Maximo Rey D. João V (in Portuguese). Lisboa: na Officina de Miguel Rodrigues, impressor do Eminent. Senhor Card. Patriarca, 1751.
  • Saldanha Lopes, Luiz. A camisa da sagração de Luís XV e a Irmandade do Santíssimo Sacramento de Mafra/La Chemise du Sacre de Louis XV et la Confrérie du Très Saint Sacrement de Mafra (in Portuguese and French). 1.ª ed. Mafra: Irmandade do Santíssimo Sacramento de Mafra, 2016. ISBN 978-989-20-6280-8.
  • Saldanha, Sandra Costa. Um crucifixo de Anton Maria Maragliano em Mafra: oferta do genovês Domenico Massa à Ordem Terceira da Penitência (in Portuguese). Invenire: Revista de Bens Culturais da Igreja, n.º 7, 2013.
  • Vale, Teresa Leonor M. Os Garvo - Uma família de artistas italianos em Lisboa e o seu papel no contexto da arte portuguesa de seiscentos e setecentos (in Portuguese). In Le nove son tanto e tante buone, che dir non se ne pò Lisboa dos Italianos: História e Arte (sécs. XIV-XVIII), Nunziatella Alessandrini et al. (eds.,). Lisboa: Cátedra de Estudos Sefarditas "Alberto Benveniste", 2013. ISBN 978-989-96236-3-7.
  • Ventura, Margarida Garcez. A Colegiada de Santo André de Mafra (Séculos XV-XVIII) (in Portuguese). Mafra: Câmara Municipal de Mafra, 2002. ISBN 972-8204-30-2.

External links[edit]

Media related to Category:Real e Venerável Irmandade do Santíssimo Sacramento de Mafra at Wikimedia Commons

See also[edit]