Draft:Mobile ethnography

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Mobile ethnography is a qualitative research method that takes advantage of technology to document, analyze and derive implications of real-time customer experience (Stickdorn, Hormess, Lawrence & Schneider 2017[1]; Muskat, Muskat, Zehrer, & Johns 2013[2]; Frischhut Stickdorn, & Zehrer 2012[3]). Therefore it’s often applied in the context of service design.

Distinction to other ethnographic methods[edit]

Unlike classic ethnography where a researcher has to be present for observations, mobile ethnography uses the participant’s mobile device to gather user-centered information (Axup & Viller, 2005[4]; Connelly, Faber, Rogers, Siek, & Toscos, 2006[5]). It allows the participant to become an active researcher him- or herself, report experiences at the time of the happening, on the very spot and in the mental space of the experience and structure it themselves. Mobile ethnography therefore follows the principles of user-centered design (Constantine & Lockwood, 2001[6]; Stickdorn & Frischhut, 2012[7])

Characteristics of mobile ethnography[edit]

Other than classic ethnography, mobile ethnography overcomes the challenge of recalling experiences after the service usage by collecting data straight during the service delivery. As a form of auto-ethnography it takes place independently of geography and allows to gather real-time customer insights when and where they happen (Muskat et al. 2013[2]; Stickdorn & Schneider 2010[8]; Dimanche & Gibbs, 2016[9]). As a self-structured approach participants themselves define on the touchpoints and therefore on what is essential for their customer experience. This also decreases research bias, as customers are not have to stick to predefined categories. As a research method, mobile ethnography is rather time- and cost-efficient as the participants becomes an active researcher by using his mobile device. Furthermore, research teams can be dispersed as the recruitment of participants can be done from any place and researchers do not have to be present during the data collection. However, participants should have a contact person in case questions appear (Stickdorn & Frischhut, 2012[7]).

Application of mobile ethnography[edit]

Mobile ethnography methods differ in the mobile device they use, the openness of the approach, the frequency and the content assessed (Brown & Hutton 2013[10]; Hulks, Mattelmäki, Virtanen & Keinonen 2004[11]). Mobile ethnography has been applied in qualitative marketing research and customer experience management in order to slip into the customer’s shoes and let customers collect touchpoints in order to create their personal journey map.

The qualitative research method has been applied in various industries and fields. In tourism mobile ethnography has been applied to analyze the tourist and visitor experience (Axup & Viller, 2005[4]; Stickdorn & Frischhut, 2012[7]; Stickdorn, Frischhut, & Schmid, 2014[12]; Dimanche & Gibbs, 2016[9]; Dimanche & Prayag, 2016[13]). Also in the field of health care more and more studies apply mobile ethnography by monitoring the patients’ behaviour or progress in order to improve their quality of life and self-efficacy (Anhøj & Møldrup, 2004[14]; Connelly et al., 2006[5]; Logan et al., 2007[15]; Bull, 2011[16]; Spinney, 2011[17]; Mattila, 2011[18]; Dennison, Morrison, Conway, & Yardley, 2013[19]; Rich & Miah, 2017[20]) Also in retail research, this method is applied to study the offline and online shopping experience (Kourouthanassis, Giaglis, & Vrechopoulos, 2007[21]; Varnali & Toker, 2010[22]; Harwood & Jones, 2014[23]). Newer approaches extend the scope and includes the staff experience or even the learning experience of students. Mobile ethnography thus is not limited to customer experience. It can also be used as a method for investigating employee experience design (Stickdorn, Hormess, Lawrence & Schneider, 2017[1]) or student experience.

Software nowadays provides various mobile ethnography tools in order to collect touchpoints by means of mobile devices and to allow digital journey mapping (Dimanche, 2014[24]; Bosio, Rainer, & Stickdorn, 2017[25]). Challenges for the researcher however include the correct briefing of participants and providing them an incentive for participants to report on their experiences. The method works best for longer research of a duration of more than one day (Stickdorn, Hormess, Lawrence, Schneider, 2017[1]).



References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Stickdorn, M.; Hormess, M.; Lawrence, A.; Schneider, J. (2017). This is service design doing : applying service design thinking in the real world : a practitioner's handbook (First ed.). Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly. ISBN 9781491927182. OCLC 922913141.
  2. ^ a b Muskat, M.; Muskat, B.; Zehrer, A.; Johns, R. (2013). "Generation Y: evaluating services experiences through mobile ethnography". Tourism Review. 68 (3): 55–71. doi:10.1108/TR-02-2013-0007.
  3. ^ Frischhut, B. (2012). "Mobile ethnography as a new research tool for customer-driven destination management - A case study of applied service design in St. Anton, Austria". CAUTHE 2012: The New Golden Age of Tourism and Hospitality; Book 2; Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference: 161–167.
  4. ^ a b Axup, J.; Viller, S. (2005). Conceptualizing New Mobile Devices by Observing Gossip and Social Network Formation Amongst the Extremely Mobile. Mobile Information Sharing 1 (MIS-1). ITEE Technical Report No. 459. School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. The University of Queensland.
  5. ^ a b Connelly, K.; Faber, A.; Rogers, Y.; Siek, K.; Toscos, T. (2006). Mobile applications that empower people to monitor their personal health. Springer e & i: Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, 123(4), 124-128.
  6. ^ Constantine, L. L.; Lockwood, L. A. (2001). Structure and style in use cases for user interface design. In M. Van Harmelen (Ed.), Object modeling and user interface design (pp. 245–280). Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  7. ^ a b c Stickdorn, M.; Frischhut, B. (2012). Service design and tourism : case studies of applied research projects on mobile ethnography for tourism destinations. Norderstedt: Books on Demand. ISBN 9783848216307. OCLC 812536121.
  8. ^ Stickdorn, M.; Schneider, J. (2010). This is service design thinking : basics--tools--cases. Amsterdam: BIS Publishers. ISBN 978-9063692568. OCLC 705796914.
  9. ^ a b Dimanche, F.; Gibbs, C. (2016). "Improving service experiences with mobile ethnography: e case of two attractions in Toronto". Proceedings of the TTRA Canada Chapter Conference in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
  10. ^ Brown, S.; Hutton, A. (2013). Developments in the real-time evaluation of audience behavior at planned events. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 4(1), 43–55. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1108/17582951311307502
  11. ^ Hulkko, S.; Mattelmäki, T.; Virtanen, K.; Keinonen, T. (2004). Mobile probes. In Proceedings of the third Nordic conference on Human-computer interaction (43-51). ACM.
  12. ^ Stickdorn, M.; Frischhut, B.; Schmid, J.S. (2014). "Mobile Ethnography: A Pioneering Research Approach for Customer-Centered Destination Management". Tourism Analysis. 19 (4): 491–503. doi:10.3727/108354214x14090817031198.
  13. ^ Dimanche, F.; Prayag, G. (2016). "Visitor Driven Service Experiences in a City Destination: A Mobile Ethnography Approach". Tourism Travel and Research Association: Advancing Tourism Research Globally. 13.
  14. ^ Anhøj, J; Møldrup, C. (2004). "Feasibility of Collecting Diary Data From Asthma Patients Through Mobile Phones and SMS (Short Message Service): Response Rate Analysis and Focus Group Evaluation From a Pilot Study". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 6 (4). doi:10.2196/jmir.6.4.e42.
  15. ^ Logan, A.G.; McIsaac, W.J.; Tisler, A.; Irvine, M.J.; Saunders, A.; Dunai, A.; Rizo, C.A.; Feig, D.S.; Hamill, M. (2007). "Mobile Phone–Based Remote Patient Monitoring System for Management of Hypertension in Diabetic Patients". American Journal of Hypertension. 20 (9): 942–948. doi:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2007.03.020. ISSN 0895-7061.
  16. ^ Bull, S. (2011). Technology-based health promotion. McFarlane, Mary. Los Angeles [Calif.]: SAGE. ISBN 9781412970600. OCLC 781260883.
  17. ^ Spinney, J. (2011). A chance to catch a breath: Using mobile video ethnography in cycling research. Mobilities, 6(2), 161–182.
  18. ^ Mattila, E. (2011). Design and evaluation of a mobile phone diary for personal health management (Vol. 6) Doctoral dissertation. Tampere University of Technology, VTT, Tampere.
  19. ^ Dennison, L.; Morrison, L.; Conway, G.; Yardley, L. (2013). Opportunities and challenges for smartphone applications in supporting health behavior change: Qualitative study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15(4).
  20. ^ Rich, E.; Miah, A. (2017). Mobile, wearable and ingestible health technologies: Towards a critical research agenda. Health Sociology Review, 26(1), 84–97.
  21. ^ Kourouthanassis, P.E.; Giaglis, G.M.; Vrechopoulos, A.P. (2007). "Enhancing user experience through pervasive information systems: The case of pervasive retailing". International Journal of Information Management. 27 (5): 319–335. doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2007.04.005.
  22. ^ Varnali, K.; Toker, A. (2010). "Mobile marketing research: The-state-of-the-art". International Journal of Information Management. 30 (2): 144–151. doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2009.08.009.
  23. ^ Harwood, T.; Jones, M. (2014). Mobile eye-tracking in retail research. In M. Horsley, M. Eliot, B. A. Knight, & R.Reilly (Ed.), Current trends in eye tracking research (pp. 183–199). London: Springer.
  24. ^ Dimanche, F. (2014). Experiencefellow: Une application pour améliorer le design des services touristiques (Experiencefellow: An application to improve service design in tourism). Revue Espaces, 321, 61-65.
  25. ^ Bosio, B.; Rainer, K.; Stickdorn, M. (2017). Customer Experience Research with Mobile Ethnography: A Case Study of the Alpine Destination Serfaus-Fiss-Ladis, in Russell W. Belk (Ed.) Qualitative Consumer Research (Review of Marketing Research, Volume 14) Emerald Publishing Limited, 111 - 137.