Bathyphysa conifera

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Bathyphysa conifera
Not evaluated (IUCN 3.1)[1]
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Hydrozoa
Order: Siphonophorae
Family: Rhizophysidae
Genus: Bathyphysa
B. conifera
Binomial name
Bathyphysa conifera
Studer, 1878[2]
  • Bathyphysa grimaldi[3]
  • Bathyphysa grimaldii Bedot 1893[4]
  • Pterophysa grandis Fewkes 1886
  • Rhizophysa conifera Studer 1878

Bathyphysa conifera, sometimes called the flying spaghetti monster is a bathypelagic[5] species of siphonophore in the family Rhizophysidae. The specific epithet conifera ('cone-bearing')[6] is due to the unusual shape of the cluster of gonophores.[2] In Japanese it is called マガタマニラ[5][7] / まがたまにら / 勾玉韮[3] (magatamanira)(literally 'jewel leek'). In Chinese it can be called 飞行的面条怪兽 (fēixíng de miàntiáo guàishòu) (literally 'flying noodles monster').[8]

It has been found in the Northeast[9] and Northwest Atlantic Ocean,[10] off the coast of Angola,[11] and in Monterey Bay in the Pacific Ocean.[5] Like many siphonophores, it is carnivorous.[5]

It has a cystonect body plan,[12] meaning it has a pneumatophore (float) and siphosome (line of polyps) but no nectosome (propulsion medusae).[13] It differs from members of the genus Rhizophysa by the presence of ptera (side 'wings') on the young gastrozooids (feeding polyps).[14][11] It is distinct from other members of the genus Bathyphysa as its tentacles do not have tentilla (side branches).[12][14][11]

A species of Caristius associates with B. conifera, using it for shelter, stealing meals, and perhaps nibbling on its host as well, yet protecting it from amphipod parasites like Themisto.[12]


The name 'flying spaghetti monster' refers to the resemblance between Bathyphysa conifera and the main deity of Pastafarianism, in particular following a June 2015 viral sighting[14][8][11] of the species off the coast of Angola.


  1. ^ "Bathyphysa conifera". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017. This taxon has not yet been assessed for the IUCN Red List, but is in the Catalogue of Life: Bathyphysa conifera (Studer, 1878)
  2. ^ a b Studer, Théophile Rudolphe (13 July 1878). von Siebold, Carl Theodor; von Kölliker, Albert; Ehlers, Ernst (eds.). "Ueber Siphonophoren des tiefen Wassers" [About siphonophores of deep water] (PDF). Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie (in German). 31: 4–14. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  3. ^ a b 山田真弓. "マガタマニラ". コトバンク (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun Company / VOYAGE GROUP, Inc. Retrieved 3 September 2017. マガタマニラ まがたまにら / 勾玉韮 [学]Bathyphysa grimaldi
  4. ^ Prince of Monaco, Albert I; Guerne, Jules de; Richard, Jules (20 July 1904). "RHIZOPHYSALIÆ Bathyphysa grimaldii Bedot" (pdf). Résultats des Campagnes Scientifiques Accomplies Sur Son Yacht Par Albert Ier, Prince Souverain de Monaco (in French). 27 Siphonophores Provenant des Campagnes du Yacht Princesse-Alice (1892-1902): 16. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.2169. OCLC 14588383. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d e Schuchert, P.; Mapstone, G. (2013). Bathyphysa conifera (Studer, 1878). In: Schuchert, P. (2017). World Hydrozoa database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2017-09-01
  6. ^ G., Chuck (2005). "Dictionary of Botanical Epithets". Dictionary of Botanical Epithets. Retrieved 5 September 2017. conifer conifera coniferum cone bearing conus con noun/m κωνοϛ cone i i cnct connective vowel used by botanical Latin fer fer apar fero to bear, carry, bring
  7. ^ "Bathyphysa conifera - Biological Information System for Marine Life". Biological Information System for Marine Life (BISMaL). Japan: Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology. 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  8. ^ a b 沈姝华 (2015-08-13). 王晓易_NE0011 (ed.). "Bathyphysa conifera". (in Chinese). Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  9. ^ Costello, Mark J.; Emblow, Chris; White, Richard, eds. (2001). "Ctenophora". European register of marine species : a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Patrimoines Naturels. 50. Paris: Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. p. 122. hdl:2292/19517. ISBN 978-2-85653-538-7. ISSN 1281-6213. Order Cystonectae Family Physaliidae Family Rhizophysidae Bathyphysa conifera (Studer, 1878) A
  10. ^ Cairns, Stephen D.; Calder, Dale R.; Brinckmann-Voss, Anita; Castro, Clovis B.; Fautin, Daphne G.; Pugh, Philip R.; Mills, Claudia E.; Jaap, Walter C.; Arai, Mary N.; Haddock, Stephen H. D.; Opresko, Dennis M. (2002). Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. American Fisheries Society Special Publications. 28 (Second ed.). Bethesda, Maryland: American Fisheries Society. pp. 29, 61. ISBN 978-1888569391. ISSN 0097-0638.
  11. ^ a b c d Jones, D.O.B., Gates, A.R., Curry, R.A., Thomson, M., Pile, A., Benfield, M. (Eds) (2009). SERPENT project. Media database archive. Available online at accessed on Fri Sep 01 2017
  12. ^ a b c Janssen, John; Gibbs Jr., Robert H.; Pugh, Phil R. (27 February 1989). "Association of Caristius Sp. (Pisces: Caristiidae) with a Siphonophore, Bathyphysa conifera". Copeia. 1989 (1): 198–201. doi:10.2307/1445624. JSTOR 1445624.
  13. ^ Dunn, Casey. "Siphonophores: Body Plan". Siphonophores. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  14. ^ a b c "'Flying Spaghetti Monster' Caught on Camera off Coast of Angola". 15 August 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2017.

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